Mesure et prédiction de la réactivité des lipides au cours du chauffage d'huiles végétales à haute température

Abstract : If lipids contribute to nutritional and sensorial properties of many foodstuf, they are particularly sensitive to oxidation reactions. The main mechanisms involved in the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids are already well-known. However, it is almost impossible to predict the progress of oxidative reactions and often necessary to develop new studies of oxidative stability for each new food product / processing. The aim of this study is to develop a mechanistic model coupled to oxygen transfer in order to predict the evolution of oxidation reactions in a bulk lipid system and in defined and controlled experimental conditions (temperature, oxygenation, fatty acids' composition, antioxidants' composition). Thus, a reaction scheme detailing all the reactions involved in the oxidation phenomenon was proposed and a stoichio-kinetic model was built on the basis of conservation equations and kinetic parameters available in literature. The reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids contained in three usual edible oils (rapeseed, sunflower, high oleic sunflower), previously stripped of their natural antioxidants, was studied between 80 and 180 °C, following several oxidation markers (conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides, aldehydes, polymers). As expected, oxidation kinetics depended on fatty acids' composition of oils, on temperature and on oxygen availability. The addition of antioxidant(s) confirmed the protective effect of α-tocopherol, which was not improved by the enrichment in chlorogenic acid, a phenolic acid naturally occurring in sunflower seeds. The experimental data were used to validate the model which predictions reproduce experimental tendencies. Two limitations were identified during model validation. The first is the accurate description of the oxygenation mechanism of the medium which need to be measured in oil at high temperatures. Moreover, given the large number of reactions taken into account, it is essential to have a set of more important experimental data which include radical intermediates. For this, the potential of electron spin resonance spectroscopy was evaluated in this in order to follow lipid radical species and access to kinetic parameters of radical reactions, few available in literature.
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Olesea Roman. Mesure et prédiction de la réactivité des lipides au cours du chauffage d'huiles végétales à haute température. Autre. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0004⟩. ⟨pastel-00806186⟩

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