Influence de la matière organique dissoute d'origine urbaine sur la spéciation et la biodisponibilité des métaux dans les milieux récepteurs anthropisés

Abstract : This thesis was carried out on the framework of the OPUR and Piren-Seine programs. The main objectives were to improve the current knowledge on the influence of combined sewer overflows (CSO) on metal speciation and bioavailability in urban aquatic system. Indeed, the impact of heavy metals in the receiving environment on the life of microorganisms depends on a portion of their total concentrations but also and especially of their bioavailability. It is generally recognized that the bioavailable heavy metals to microorganisms is dissolved free. The CSO's will be able to significantly change the content and bioavailability of heavy metals in the environment in so far as these discharges are heavily loaded with dissolved organic matter (DOM) which will considerably influence with the DOM already present in course of water the speciation of metals in the environment given its ability to complex metals and its tendency to decrease their bioavailability. The understanding of the influence of DOM on trace metal speciation and bioavailability required that the chemical composition of DOM, more exactly its binding sites should be well understood. Therefore, one part of this research focused on the characterization of DOM of natural and urban origin by fractionation according to the criteria of polarity. A finer characterization was performed using functional analyses that were of prime importance to better understand the influence of DOM on copper speciation and bioavailability. Alongside the characterization study of the DOM, this work aims to better understand the role of urban DOM in particular hydrophilic fraction on the speciation and bioavailability of copper. To accomplish these objectives, the technique such as potentiometry with ionic selective electrode and bioassay such as an acute toxicity test (Daphnia magna) were performed in order to: - Study the copper binding by DOM in order to give some binding parameters of hydrophilic DOM and to better predict the fate of the trace metal. - Evaluate the protective role of urban DOM on copper bioavailability. Results showed some particular characteristics of urban DOM such as a high proportion of hydrophilic DOM, i.e. a low hydrophobicity and a low degree of aromaticity underlying the low refractory character of this DOM. Nevertheless a higher content of various functional groups was determined in urban DOM than in natural DOM. A very high content of proteinaceous structures was particularly identified in urban DOM. Binding experiments revealed a higher content of binding sites in urban discharges than in natural DOM and these sites are strongly correlated to amino groups. The approach used to evaluate copper bioavailability depicted a protective role of DOM to the organisms Daphnia magna(...)
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Zeinab Matar. Influence de la matière organique dissoute d'origine urbaine sur la spéciation et la biodisponibilité des métaux dans les milieux récepteurs anthropisés. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1151⟩. ⟨pastel-00806323⟩

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