Incidences du contexte urbain et du rapport au cadre de vie sur la mobilité de loisir

Abstract : The suburban is regularly stigmatized for its excessive mobility. In this Ph.D., starting from this commentary, we explored the links between living environment and leisure mobility. In fact, while some studies have focused exclusively on the influence of household socioeconomic data (education level, PCS) to explain their mobility, others have highlighted the influence of urban context. Based on these existing studies, we will adopt a different approach on two main points. On the one hand, we do not take solely into consideration the common urban context of all households but also the living environment for each of these households (understood as the urban space usually practiced by said household in their urban context), on the other hand, we assume that the spatial practices of households (both inside and outside their living environment) are also based on their "relation to their living environment". The "relation to their living environment" does not only comes from socio-economic household characteristics, but also refers to their own history, their residential record, their appreciation of the functional dimensions, social and sensitive (in other words, their representation) of their living environment. Our work therefore consisted in testing in an empirical manner the influence of urban context and relation to the living environment and leisure mobility. The Rome and Paris urban conglomeration, which are different in terms of urban structure and urban sprawl model, are our fields of study. We selected a sample of households of adults between 30 and 45 year old with children and have investigated in 9 districts, chosen for their location (central, pericentral, suburban) and level of public transport services. Our empirical work combines three complementary approaches: a contextual approach in which we describe the functional, sensitive and social characteristics of the studied fields, a qualitative approach including 81 semi-direct interviews and a quantitative approach based on 2250 telephone interviews (closed questions) of households living in the studied district. An analytical analytical framework was used to analyze and classify households according to five ‘relative to living environment' profiles based on their representations and practices in functional, sensitive and social registers. Our statistical results confirm the strong influence of income and socioeconomic position on leisure mobility but also the non-negligible influence of two other variables that act separately and in an interactive manner: the relationship with the living environment and the urban context. Moreover, ignoring the influence of income and socioeconomic position, the results confirm a statistically significant influence of geographical location. People living in a central area travel more kilometers for their leisure mobility than the inhabitants of suburbs and their global mobility (job + hobby) is almost equivalent. An analysis on the neighborhood scale confirms the hypothesis of compensation mobility and specific contextual elements constituting leisure motivation. Contextual analysis at different scales (agglomeration, geographic location, area and housing) confirms the influence of important factors that explain a significant part of leisure mobility in terms of mileage: for example, a lack of quiet ambience, green spaces, social life intensity and distance to leisure offered. The influence of public transport proximity, density and status of tenure (owner or renter) can then be observed. The type of housing (house or building) has no influence. The results show the role of the household interaction with the living environment based on lifestyle, which is itself founded on leisure mobility. The attention paid to the relation between the household and its living environment shows that leisure mobility depends especially on the household's representation of its surroundings
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Hélène Nessi. Incidences du contexte urbain et du rapport au cadre de vie sur la mobilité de loisir. Economies et finances. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1182⟩. ⟨pastel-00808891⟩

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