Gestion des forêts sèches à Madagascar et au Niger. Vulnérabilité et Fonctions des systèmes socio-écologiques pour comprendre les réformes forestières et leurs effets

Abstract : In the 1990's, policies for decentralization of natural resource management were developed in Madagascar and Niger. These policies were created in response to the failure of centralized policies to halt forest degradation, and favored by an increasing international recognition of rural people's capacity to manage their own forests. The new policies influenced how rural people interact with their forest ecosystems, a change process that had both positive and negative outcomes. This thesis proposes a framework for analyzing intended as well as inadvertent effects of the decentralization policies on forests and on local people. It further applies the framework to two case studies, one in Niger and one in Madagascar, representing the implementation of these policies in two different contexts. The framework conceptualizes human and forests as a social-ecological system (SES), in which interactions between users and ecosystems are regarded as functions of the system. The implemented policies are interpreted as strategies to reduce vulnerability of the SES. The results show that the decentralization process targeted a SES where only one function, the production of fuelwood, was perceived. In reality, however, dry tropical forest systems are composed by several different functions, and these functions interact. While the new forest policies led to an increased expression of some of the 16 functions identified in Niger (15 in Madagascar), they led to a decline in others, with the subsequent marginalization of the actors groups linked to those functions. To reduce vulnerability in tropical dry forest SES, we need to develop policy options that properly reflect and account for the complex interactions that characterize these systems.
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Fanny Rives. Gestion des forêts sèches à Madagascar et au Niger. Vulnérabilité et Fonctions des systèmes socio-écologiques pour comprendre les réformes forestières et leurs effets. Economies et finances. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0002⟩. ⟨pastel-00809116⟩

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