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Abstract : The changes in land use of contaminated agricultural soils are susceptible to modify their trace metal availabilities by changing the quality and quantity of soil organic matter. But the role of soil organic matter in the determinism of trace metal availabilities in contaminated soils is not well known. The objective of the present study was to assess the role of soil organic matter in determinism of trace metal availabilities and their dynamics in contaminated soils varying in their texture and nature of pollution. A strategy of studying Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd availabilities of two sites with different texture and origin of pollution was adopted and the role of organic matter was assessed through; 1) sampling the soils of two parcels at each site with two different land uses i.e. under annual crop and under perennial energy crop miscanthus, 2) changing the soil organic matter of these soils through in vitro soil incubations. A combined approach of chemical metal extractions and metal localization study in different soil size fractions was used. The results of the trace metal availabilities of the soil under miscanthus compared to annual crop soil showed that the influence of changes in organic matter through land use was different at both sites. In the silty clayed soil, the availability of Cu and Pb which are the metals known to be preferentially bound to organic matter was decreased with an increase in their localization in soil finer fractions. In the site with organic matter rich sandy soils the availability of metals which are known to be bound to soil mineral phases i.e. Zn and Cd was changed without a change in their localization. The results of laboratory incubation experiments revealed that the mineralization of soil organic matter affects the trace metal availability in two ways. Cu and Zn availabilities are changed in all soils whatever the texture while Pb and Cd availabilities changed only in sandy soils. This difference of the change of metal availabilities in both cases of organic matter variations i.e. between the soil samples under different land use and in the samples of laboratory incubations can be explained by the fact that the changes in organic matter were not similar in both cases. Our work on the metal enriched particulate organic matter (POM) fractions, the most labile organic matter fractions showed that POM act as source and sink of the metals in our conditions and POM associated copper is bioavailable in liquid medium but its bioavailability is less than the metal added as salt solution. These results, increasing the understanding of the role of soil organic matter in the determinism of trace metal availability in different textured soils, are discussed.
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Muhammad Iqbal. :. Agricultural sciences. AgroParisTech, 2012. English. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0020⟩. ⟨pastel-00811413⟩

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