Modélisation des flux de carbone, d'énergie et d'eau entre l'atmosphère et des écosystèmes de steppe sahélienne avec un modèle de végétation global

Abstract : The evolution of the land-surface conditions is often assessed through the use of "dynamic global vegetation models", as is shown in a review of the current understanding of the factors of variability and of the recent evolution of the vegetation cover in the Sahel. Such models are also coupled to atmospheric general circulation models to evaluate the land feedback on precipitation in monsoonal climates. Thus, the improvement of the skills of such surface models to simulate the radiative and turbulent fluxes between the land of surface and the atmosphere in the Sahel over a range of scales from hourly to multi-annual has a potential to have significant implications. This is especially true considering the vulnerability of the rural population of the region, which largely relies on rainfed agriculture and the interest on the evolution of the carbon stocks of ecosystems in the context of climate change. Such a work on the ORCHIDEE model is presented here. In complement to croplands, rangelands and fallows represent a large share of the sahelian landscapes and have intermediate characteristics between erosion glacis and acacia bushes. As such, their evolution (in terms of albedo, roughness length,...) may be used to study the Sahel ecosystem behaviour as a first approximation. Differences between model outputs and field observations are quantified for a fallow close to Wankama (Niger). More precisely, some of the drawbacks of the standard parametrisation and structure of the model are diagnosed, and the range of reduction of the model-observation mismatch that results from optimizing some of the parameters are given (plant phenology,...). In particular, the use of a finite difference resolution of the soil water diffusion is considered as it enables to better simulate the fast response of evaporative fluxes to rainfall than the conceptual scheme routinely used in ORCHIDEE. The benefits of the use of such a "physical" hydrological scheme on the different outputs of the surface scheme is evaluated. The realism of the model is also measured at the regional scale, through a comparison with GIMMS_3G NDVI time series over West Africa. If the modifications that have been introduced in the model don't improve its ability to describe the vegetation cover trends over the last decades in the region, several lessons can be kept from the analysis that has been realised, especially from the work on the transitivity of state-dependant model biases that has been conducted with Tao Wang and which is presented in annex B.
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Submitted on : Sunday, May 26, 2013 - 9:03:53 PM
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Pierre Brender. Modélisation des flux de carbone, d'énergie et d'eau entre l'atmosphère et des écosystèmes de steppe sahélienne avec un modèle de végétation global. Bioclimatologie. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨pastel-00826115⟩

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