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Flux et sources des parabènes, du triclosan et du triclocarban en milieux urbains denses : comparaison entre Paris et Beyrouth

Abstract : Triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC) and parabens (esters of para-hydroxbenzoic acid) are used as antiseptics and preservatives in pharmaceuticals personal care products. Their use generates concerns on their fate and their potential effect on the fauna and flora (Bazin et al., 2010). Indeed, they are introduced in the receiving waters primarily via effluents from wastewater treatment plants and combine sewer overflows (McAvoy et al., 2002; Agüera et al., 2003). The main objectives of this work were to set up a database on levels of impregnation in the urban wastewater from two cities, Paris and Beirut by dry weather, and to assess the effectiveness of treatments in different wastewater treatment plants: two in Paris one in Beirut. Monitoring of the contamination of the main tributaries of Paris and Beirut has allowed more advanced knowledge of both the analysis of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban but also to urban waste water contamination in both countries by these molecules. Thus on analytical aspects, a very high stability of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban, once fixed on cartridge OASIS HLB, after extraction on previously acidified samples of wastewater, has been highlighted. A test of conservation, carried out over a period of 4 months, showed the possibility of conducting analyses of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in countries without any analytical devices (UPLC/MSMS, for example), which opens up interesting prospects for emerging countries. With respect to levels of contamination, our results showed that methylparaben, propylparaben and ethylparaben have the highest concentrations while benzylparaben has never been observed in any sample. Parabens were present in the dissolved phase at more than 99 %. The log(Kd) estimated for these compounds were between 0.8 and 2 (median values) for France and 1.3 and 2.3 for Lebanon. TSS were not the main conveyor of these compounds in the tributaries. Triclosan was predominantly present in the particulate phase, it presented log(Kd) higher than parabens, of about 4 for the two countries. Triclocarban was more singular. For the emissaries in the Paris region, its log(Kd) was lower than that of triclosan (3.4 against 4) whereas a reverse situation was observed in Beirut: 4.6 for triclocarban and 4 1 for triclosan. This was a direct consequence of the higher contribution of the particulate phase to the total load of triclocarban in Lebanon.Based on measured concentrations for the first time in France, the yearly flows per inhabitant equivalent have been determined for all the compounds, they were of 1158 mg for MeP, 276 mg for EtP, 253 mg for PrP, 12 mg for IsoBuP, 66 mg for BuP, 268 mg for TCS and 9 mg for TCC. These estimates have not been made possible for Lebanon because flow measurements were not available on the monitored sites. Although the phenomena involved differ depending on the compounds, it has been shown that the two wastewater treatment plants of Seine Centre and Seine Aval removed at more than 97 % parabens, triclosan and triclocarban
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Darine Geara-Matta. Flux et sources des parabènes, du triclosan et du triclocarban en milieux urbains denses : comparaison entre Paris et Beyrouth. Autre. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1129⟩. ⟨pastel-00836830⟩

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