Réponse spatio-temporelle de la végétation forestière au réchauffement climatique - Évaluation du remaniement de la végétation et caractérisation de l’effet des facteurs écologiques et géographiques le modulant à l’échelle de l’espèce et des communautés

Abstract : Climate change is known to cause a spatial redistribution of climatic conditions which is driving poleward and upward range shifts. Such shifts imply a reorganization of plant communities which is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to assess the changes in plant communities' composition induced by climate warming at a global scale and over a long time period, as well as to analyze the effects of ecological and geographical factors that contribute to these changes at the species and community levels. The response of the forest flora to the raising temperature has been studied across the French metropolitan territory (~546,000 km²) from large floristic databases, measured and modeled environmental data, and a modeling approach based on the concept of ecological niche and the bioindicator properties of plant species. First, we showed that the reshuffling of plant communities allowed to recover 0.54°C of the temperature increase between the periods 1965–1986 and 1987–2008 in highland forests (i.e. +1.07°C), while it recovered only 0.02°C in lowland forest (warming = 1.11 °C). This partial compensation demonstrates the current occurrence of a climatic debt in forest vegetation caused by climate warming. The high climatic debt observed in lowland forest compared to the highland one is likely due to extinction and migration debts caused by a wider temperature tolerance of plants in lowland communities and a plant migration capacity (i) limited by the high spatial fragmentation of the lowland forest habitat and (ii) shorter than the shift of thermal conditions in lowland areas, respectively. The ecological and geographical specificity of lowland and highland forests led us to consider two different threats induced by climate change: (i) biotic attrition in lowland areas, and (ii) loss of a specific and an historic biodiversity in highland forest (mountaintop extinction of alpine species due the surface decrease of their potential habitat) likely replaced by more common species assemblage (increase of generalist plants). Second, the effects of abiotic, biotic and geographical factors which can amplify or reduce the magnitude of both the species range shifts and the reshuffling of plant communities induced by global warming were characterized. Last and final summary in the thesis.
Document type :
Theses
Complete list of metadatas

https://pastel.archives-ouvertes.fr/pastel-00839155
Contributor : Abes Star <>
Submitted on : Thursday, June 27, 2013 - 11:57:11 AM
Last modification on : Friday, July 27, 2018 - 3:00:02 PM
Long-term archiving on : Wednesday, April 5, 2017 - 4:23:37 AM

File

Bertrand_PhDThesis_vFinal.pdf
Version validated by the jury (STAR)

Identifiers

  • HAL Id : pastel-00839155, version 1

Collections

Citation

Romain Bertrand. Réponse spatio-temporelle de la végétation forestière au réchauffement climatique - Évaluation du remaniement de la végétation et caractérisation de l’effet des facteurs écologiques et géographiques le modulant à l’échelle de l’espèce et des communautés. Sciences agricoles. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0065⟩. ⟨pastel-00839155⟩

Share

Metrics

Record views

1434

Files downloads

3871