Vers une caractérisation spatiotemporelle pour l'analyse du cycle de vie

Abstract : This thesis presents various developments to the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method to improve the consideration of spatiotemporal specificities when modeling systems. These developments handle the question of how to characterize the various systems' flows. The discussion begins with an analysis of recent developments for the LCA method regarding the consideration of spatiotemporal characteristics in different phases of this method. This analysis identifies several weaknesses on how space and time are characterized today. A new spatiotemporal characterization mode is therefore proposed to minimize the adverse effects of existing characterization modes. Representativeness of the modeled system, potential accuracy of the characterization and the amount of time necessary for system modeling are three important criteria considered for the elaboration of this new spatiotemporal characterization mode. The new mode specifically improves the “genericity” of processes which are used to model systems in different databases. This “genericity” allows a reduction in the unavoidable workload increase related to the time characterization. The new method, however, requires a major change in the method of calculating life cycle inventories due to the use of temporal distributions. The feasibility of using this new method and the method of calculating inventory is then illustrated by their implementation through different case studies related to energy generation from renewable sources. The two case studies selected highlight the relevance of considering spatiotemporal characterization to model systems in a more representative way depending on the level of preci-sion used. With this new approach, named ESPA+, this higher level of representation, however, brings a potential decrease of completeness for the analysis of the system. Indeed, it is difficult to model the spatiotemporal characteristics of a complete system.
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Didier Beloin-Saint-Pierre. Vers une caractérisation spatiotemporelle pour l'analyse du cycle de vie. Autre. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ENMP0093⟩. ⟨pastel-00857936⟩

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