Imagerie ultrasonore ultrarapide d'évènements de cavitation : application en thérapie par ultrasons et imagerie de détection

Abstract : The onset of cavitation activity in an aqueous medium is linked to the formation of gas/vapour-filled cavities of micrometric size. This formation can be acoustically mediated and is then called acoustic bubble nucleation. We focus here in the activation of seed nuclei by short (a few cycles) and high amplitude ultrasonic excitation (order of magnitude MPa). Bubbles are generated during the rarefaction phase of the wave and are transient (they dissolve). The nucleation properties of biological tissues are little known. However, they can be assessed using ultrasound: the formation of a bubble results in the appearance of a new scatterer (which can be detected with a pulse-echo detection), and each cavitation event generates an acoustic emission (detected with passive reception). In n this PhD manuscript, we use ultrafast ultrasound imaging (simultaneous acquisition on an array of transducers with a high frame rate) to detect cavitation events. Two in vitro applications were first validated. On one hand, bubble nucleation was performed through a human skull, and transcranial passive detection of a single cavitation event was used in a time reversal process to optimize adaptive focusing for thermal therapy of brain tissue. On the other hand, the formation and dissolution of bubbles in scattering biological tissues (muscle) were detected with a high sensitivity by combining passive detection and ultrafast active imaging. Finally, in vivo experiments on sheep's brain, and others in vitro on animal blood showed that nucleation in biological tissue is a random phenomenon, and high negative pressure are mandatory to initiate nucleation in vivo (< -12MPa).
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Jérôme Gateau. Imagerie ultrasonore ultrarapide d'évènements de cavitation : application en thérapie par ultrasons et imagerie de détection. Imagerie. Université Paris-Diderot - Paris VII, 2011. Français. ⟨pastel-00863591⟩

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