Approches expérimentales et multi-échelles des processus d'amorçage de fissures en fatigue sous chargements complexes

Abstract : The development of high cycle fatigue (HCF) strength assessment methods has now been running for more than a century, leading to relatively efficient methods for engineers. Generally, these methods are based on mechanical quantities calculated at macroscopic or mesoscopic scales and validated by the model's ability to accurately reproduce experimental results. Multiaxial fatigue strength criteria are usually based on scaling transition assumptions aiming at capturing the stress or strain state in the grain. In the case of critical plane based criteria (Dang Van, Papadopoulos, Morel), fatigue crack initiation is supposed to be controlled by a mechanical quantity linked to a particular orientation (critical plane). If fatigue crack initiation phenomena are well established in the case of uniaxial loadings, the nature of the mechanisms involved in the activation of slip systems, multiple slip and preferential sites of rack initiation under complex loadings remains little known.To better understand the mechanisms of multiaxial fatigue crack initiation, analysis and characterization of the plastic activity (e.g. activation of slip systems, persistent slip bands) and observations of fatigue damage have been carried out on pure OFHC copper, using SEM and EBSD analyses. These investigations enabled to highlight the effects of non-proportional multiaxial loadings through the induced multiplicity of slip. The statistical study of preferential crack initiation sites shows that grains with multiple slip have a high probability of crack initiation, especially under non-proportional loading. We also highlighted the role of grain boundaries and twin boundaries on the development of plasticity across the microstructure. The experimental results were compared with those of finite element crystal plasticity computations on synthetic 3D semi-periodic microstructures. The application of the Dang Van criterion at the mesoscopic (grain) scale showed a strong variability of the hydrostatic stress and the shear stress. This variability was greater for anisotropic elastic behavior, while the role of crystal plasticity seemed to be secondary. These analyses allowed putting into perspective the usual assumptions of scaling transition rules used in multiaxial fatigue. Finally, a method based on the extreme values statistics ​​was proposed and applied to the equivalent stress associated to the Dang Van fatigue criterion for polycrystalline aggregate computations with different morphologies and grains orientations. The effects of the microstructure, free surface, loading types and mechanical behavior were analyzed. The results offered interesting insights into the multiaxial fatigue modeling of metals and structures taking into account the microstructure.
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Komlan Agbessi. Approches expérimentales et multi-échelles des processus d'amorçage de fissures en fatigue sous chargements complexes. Autre. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ENAM0006⟩. ⟨pastel-00867947⟩

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