Nouvelles approches pour l'évaluation environnementale des biocarburants avancés

Abstract : Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used in legislative texts in Europe and in the United States to quantify the benefits of biofuel production in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions and energy security. In this thesis, we propose two independent approaches to investigate the compliance of advanced biofuels (cellulosic ethanol, Biomass to liquids - BTL, microalgae FAME/HVO) production with these objectives. The first one is a meta- analysis (literature synthesis) of LCA studies concerning advanced biofuels. Using econometric methods, we are able to identify and quantify the main factors impacting GHG emission LCA results. Also, we estimate a confidence interval for these results for each type of advanced biofuel in question. The second part of this work is a consequential and prospective LCA illustrated by a case study about the introduction of BTL technology in France. A long-term TIMES-type energy model was adapted for environmental evaluations in order to capture impacts occurring in affected systems through economic mechanisms. We contribute, with this work, for a proper systematization of consequential and prospective LCA. We discuss the functional unit and system boundaries definitions, the use of dynamic impact characterization factors, the use of scenarios (different political and economical contexts) and the exploration of the system's boundaries to bring attention to the limits of the model employed.
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Fabio Machado Menten. Nouvelles approches pour l'évaluation environnementale des biocarburants avancés. Autre. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ENAM0009⟩. ⟨pastel-00869565⟩

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