Contribution à une théorie de la conception des agro-écosystèmes : Fonds écologique et inconnu commun

Abstract : Agriculture is facing an environmental crisis that makes it necessary to take into account the “ecosystem” functioning. But this concept of ecology is difficult to handle in the agricultural sector. Fields of literature on the "commons" and the "ecosystem services", which deal with the management of ecosystems, have been extensively developed and relayed by public policy. The thesis shows that they often freeze the conflict between agricultural objectives and environmental concerns without allowing the exploration of new farming systems.Our thesis in management science highlights the fact that a new challenge for scientific research is to learn to manage environmental regulations within agro-ecosystems in order to make agriculture sustainable. It aims to define a design approach of agro-ecosystems: can innovative design be applied to them? What are the methods to design agro-ecosystems? And what are the appropriate modes of governance?The historical analysis of scientific reasoning in agronomy and ecology highlights the reasons why the design of agro-ecosystems remains so difficult, despite finer knowledge on environmental regulations. The thesis models a particular class of objects, the “ecological fund” that scientists introduced to deal with agro-ecosystems while escaping the already known patterns. It shows the importance of considering the ecological funds not as common goods but as "common unknowns”. The proposed model, tested on an archetype of an intensive cereal production area, makes it possible to develop a method of collective and innovative design of agro-ecosystems.
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Elsa Berthet. Contribution à une théorie de la conception des agro-écosystèmes : Fonds écologique et inconnu commun. Economies et finances. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ENMP0016⟩. ⟨pastel-00874630⟩

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