Relations entre morphologie, croissance, bois de réaction et contraintes de maturation. : Apport de la technologie LiDAR terrestre pour répondre à des questions écologiques et sylvicoles.

Abstract : From an ecological point of view, the tension or compression stresses developed by wood maturation during growth allow the tree to maintain its vertical posture against gravity. These stresses, called growth stresses, results from the formation of a particular wood called reaction wood. From a mechanical point of view, the asymmetry of growth stresses between the two opposite faces of the tree trunk causes its reorientation, characterised by a curvature. This work aims at developing new theoretical and metrological tools to assess the link between tree morphology and growth stresses in a biomechanical and ecological framework. The first approach aimed at establishing the link between growth dynamics and competition of the stand with tree morphology and reaction of posture control. It is based on data taken in a long-term forestry experiment (beech plantations of different initial planting densities that grew during 26 years). The retrospective analysis of reaction wood production on wood discs taken on the trees allowed to assess the variation of their gravitropic performance over time. The scaling law established between curvature rate and stem circumference showed (i) the leading effect of the diameter of a stem on its reactivity, and (ii) the absence of additional effects of competition. At the end of the experimentation, the assessment of the tree morphology allowed to confirm the link between stem leaning and slenderness with growth stresses indicators. From a mechanical point of view, tree morphology can be assess by (i) the shape of its stem (leaning, curvatures), and (ii) the spatial distribution of its biomass, that can provide biomechanical variables for stimulus-response models. Therefore, an important methodological work was performed, based on terrestrial LiDAR technology (a promising tool for forest measurements based on 3D laser digitisation) coupled to geometrical modelling. It allowed to obtain accurate 3D mocks-up representing the woody structure of trees of variables species. The mocks-up allowed to model the bending stress exerted by the aerial biomass of the trees with the aim of linking it to the growth stresses indicators. The results show that bending stress is a promising variable for assessing the degree of reaction of trees. The developed methodology also gives many perspectives for monitoring tree morphology over time with the aim of biomechanical interpretation.
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Mathieu Dassot. Relations entre morphologie, croissance, bois de réaction et contraintes de maturation. : Apport de la technologie LiDAR terrestre pour répondre à des questions écologiques et sylvicoles.. Biologie végétale. AgroParisTech, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013AGPT0018⟩. ⟨pastel-00903914⟩

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