Tomographie à rayons X; analyse et modélisation de l'ontogénèse des épicormiques du chêne sessile (Quercus petraea (L.) Matt.).

Abstract : Sessile oak (Quercus petraea) is a major tree species of the French forestry. Its branching, i.e. the phenomenon of twigs implementation, has a unique origin: the proventitious axillary buds set during the annual shoot (AS) elongation. We distinguish the sequential branching and the epicormic branching. Epicormic ontogeny, i.e. transition from a bud to a more complex epicormic twig as an epicormic shoot, a picot or a burl is still little known. The mark left by these twigs in the wood, the rameal trace, can depreciate its commercial value. The study of the epicormic twigs ontogeny is possible with a longitudinal follow-up or a retrospective analysis of an AS, or a dissection of the tree and an observation of the rameal traces. To free ourselves from these tedious methodologies, we used RX computed tomography which allows an exhaustive survey of all the rameal traces of a log, their ontogeny as well as the 3D reconstruction of the log. This PhD allowed to show the important effect of the tree which confers on each one its capacity to set up and maintain epicormics. The more numerous the epicormics were at young stage, the more numerous the epicormics are several years later. This trend is modulated by the actual forest operations, as the maintaining of an accompanying vegetation which play on water and carbohydrates reserve; and by past forest operation as epicormic shoot emission favoured by strong thinning. Nevertheless, the early selection of the crop trees with the few epicormic formations is a silvicultural advice of first importance in order to produce more timber wood of the best quality. A strategy of inclusion of these results in the growth simulator “Fagacées” is proposed.
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Jean-Baptiste Morisset. Tomographie à rayons X; analyse et modélisation de l'ontogénèse des épicormiques du chêne sessile (Quercus petraea (L.) Matt.).. Sciences agricoles. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0074⟩. ⟨pastel-00908159⟩

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