Etude d'une collection de pommes de terre (Solanum tuberosum spp tuberosum L.) native de Chiloé (Chili) : Conservation in situ, Diversité morphologique et génétique, Comportement vis-à-vis de Phytophtora infestans

Abstract : The overall objective was to assess the genetic diversity of a collection of native potato varieties originating from the island of Chiloe, to characterize the resistance of these varieties to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) and to inquire about the status of in-situ conservation. The following specific topics was developed: a) conservation in-situ of native Solanum within the great isle of Chiloe and its impact on diversity, b) evaluation of the morphological diversity of the native potatoes that we have collected c) assessment of genetic diversity of the collection by the mean of microsatellite and AFLP markers, d) characterization of field and in-vitro resistances to late blight. Based on the results of the surveys, we can conclude that in-situ maintenance of native potato diversity i is not well preserved, due to strong social and economic changes on the island of Chiloe. There is a clear process of replacing native varieties for commercial cultivars in response to market conditions. Native varieties are present in 80.5% of the farms of Chiloe, but the diversity of varieties has been significantly reduced. The results morphological diversity showed the formation of groups under the popular name and local attributes assigned by the farmers themselves. Molecular evaluation of the collection (SSRs and AFLP) reveals a high degree of genetic diversity. Both markers were consistent in classifying Solanum fernandezianum as the more distant genotype compared to all the others. The SSRs allowed the estimation of the polymorphic information content for seven loci which values ranged between 0.63 to 0.89. Both types of markers, did not provide the same groupings among the accessions. The SSR-based study showed a low differentiation between native potatoes and improved cultivated varieties. The analysis of diversity based on the AFLP was not inconsistent with this result because despite containing only one cultivar (Desiree), the cultivar was grouped with the native varieties. In relation to resistance to late blight, most accessions of native potato fall into the ranks moderately resistant to moderately susceptible.
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Jaime Hernán Solano Solis. Etude d'une collection de pommes de terre (Solanum tuberosum spp tuberosum L.) native de Chiloé (Chili) : Conservation in situ, Diversité morphologique et génétique, Comportement vis-à-vis de Phytophtora infestans. Sciences agricoles. AgroParisTech, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011AGPT0028⟩. ⟨pastel-00910688⟩

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