Aménagement des éco–quartiers et de la biodiversité

Abstract : In a context of global changes, decline of biodiversity and increase of the urban population, the request of urban developers to integrate biodiversity into their practices is increasingly strong. My PhD thesis aimed to (1) make a review of the consideration of biodiversity in urban development, and (2) develop new tools to help developers to improve their practices. In the first part focused on biodiversity review, (1) we have expressed some doubts about the relevance of the use of current green roofs as possible integrated element of an ecological network; (2) The study of environmental measures implemented in 54 European eco-districts (mainly in France) showed that designers appeared to focus primarily on environmental benefits in terms of energy, transport, waste, water, and more rarely on biodiversity conservation; (3) LCA (life cycle analysis), a tool commonly used by developers to calculate the environmental impacts of a product (a green roof , a building or a district) integrates badly biodiversity in its calculations, and its use to compare different green elements could standardize practices which lead to an homogenization of biodiversity associated with the deterioration of ecosystem functioning. To help developers to better consider biodiversity in their practices, we have firstly contributed to the improvement of the tool «Profil-Biodiversité» created by Frank Derrien, and secondly, we have developed our own tool (BioDi(v)Strict) based on the diversity of habitats and the presence of four groups of bioindicator species to better reflect the ecological dynamic of a site. Both tools have been applied on a pilot site: the Cité Descartes (in Noisy-le- Grand and Champs-sur‐Marne). Finally, in order to let emerging a collective biodiversity awareness for the different local actors, we have developed a tool (NewDistrict) based on a multi‐agent system (MAS) model combined with a role-playing game constructed in a context of urban sprawl.
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Alexandre Henry. Aménagement des éco–quartiers et de la biodiversité. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0091⟩. ⟨pastel-00910820⟩

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