Méthodes de méta-analyse pour l’estimation des émissions de N2O par les sols agricoles

Abstract : The term meta-analysis refers to the statistical analysis of a large set of results coming from individual studies about the same topic. This approach is increasingly used in various areas, including agronomy. In this domain however, a bibliographic review conducted by this thesis, showed that meta-analyses were not always of good quality. Meta-analyses in agronomy very seldom study the robustness of their findings relative to data quality and statistical methods.The objective of this thesis is to demonstrate and illustrate the importance of sensitivity analysis in the context of meta-analysis and as an example this is based on the estimation of N2O emissions from agricultural soils. The estimation of emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) is made at the worldwide level by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). N2O is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming power 298 times greater than the one of CO2 over a 100 year period. The key characteristics of N2O emissions are a significant spatial and time variability. Two databases are used for this work: the database of Rochette and Janzen (2005) and the one of Stehfest and Bouwman (2006). They collect numerous worldwide N2O emissions measurements from published studies and have played a significant role in the estimation of N2O emissions produced by the IPCC. The results show the value of random effects models in order to estimate N2O emissions from agricultural soils. They are well suited to the structure of the data (repeated observations on the same site for different doses of fertilizers, with several sites considered). They allow to differentiate the inter-site and intra-site variability and to estimate the effect of the rate of nitrogen fertilize on the N2O emissions. In this paper, the analysis of the sensitivity of the estimations to the shape of the relationship "Emission of N2O / N fertilizer dose" has shown that an exponential relationship would be the most appropriate. Therefore it would be appropriate to replace the constant emission factor of the IPCC (1% emission whatever the dose of nitrogen fertilizer) by a variable factor which would increase with the dose. On the other hand we did not identify significant differences between frequentist and Bayesian inference methods. Two approaches have been proposed to include environmental variables and cropping practices in the estimates of N2O. The first one using the Random Forest method allows managing missing data and provides the best N2O emissions predictions. The other one, based on random effects models allow to take into account these explanatory variables via one or several measurements of N2O. They allow predicting N2O emissions for non-tested doses in unfertilized farmer's field. However their results are sensitive to the experimental design used locally to measure N2O emissions.
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Aurore Philibert. Méthodes de méta-analyse pour l’estimation des émissions de N2O par les sols agricoles. Autre. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0072⟩. ⟨pastel-00913760⟩

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