Bases génétiques de la résistance aux rhabdovirus et réponse cellulaire chez la truite arc-en-ciel : importance des mécanismes de défense innés

Abstract : The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of most significant fish model in many scientific fields, including immunology. Due to its importance in aquaculture, viruses that can infect this species have been well characterized. Two well-known Novirhabdoviruses, the viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and the infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) cause serious damage in fish farms and represent a significant threat for aquaculture in a number of countries. Our laboratories have previously reported a wide range of susceptibility to these infections in rainbow trout depending on the host genetic background (Quillet et al., 2007). In this work, we undertook a dual approach to better characterize the antiviral response in fish. A without a priori approach led to the detection of a major QTL (quantitative trait locus) for resistance to VHSV in the telomeric region of the rainbow trout linkage group 31. This QTL controls both fish survival and viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT), suggesting the involvement of innate mechanisms in the resistance, and can explain up to 65% (survival) and 49% (VREFT) of the observed phenotypic variation. Additionally, this major locus was retrieved in a number of genetic backgrounds, and regardless of the infection route (waterborne infection or injection), suggesting that the virus entry in fish is not the main factor of resistance. In parallel, cell lines were derived from ovaries of several rainbow trout isogenic lines with various levels of susceptibility to infection with VHSV. Resistance of cell lines to infection by the virus was remarkably correlated with the survival of fish from which they were derived, confirming the importance of innate factors for the resistance. This model also showed that the early stage response is critical for the cellular fate after infection. The parallelism between resistance in vitro and in vivo has finally been observed after infection by a second rhabdovirus, IHNV, although no correlation in resistance to these two viruses could be detected. Moreover, no major QTL for IHNV resistance was found in the region of the VHSV QTL. This observation suggests that the key factors of resistance are different, even if they contribute to the activation of common signaling pathways. The expression of these factors is in any case controlled by distinct regions of the genome. Our work demonstrates a strong genetic determinism of resistance to a major virus in rainbow trout, based on innate mechanisms. We believe that these results pave the way for the discovery of new host response mechanisms against viruses, leading to a better understanding of antiviral immunity in vertebrates.
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Eloi Verrier. Bases génétiques de la résistance aux rhabdovirus et réponse cellulaire chez la truite arc-en-ciel : importance des mécanismes de défense innés. Sciences agricoles. AgroParisTech, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013AGPT0001⟩. ⟨pastel-00914894⟩

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