L'intégration des stratégies économiques et politiques au sein des entreprises dérèglementées. Cadre théorique et application empirique au cas des opérateurs de télécommunications en Europe

Abstract : The strategies of deregulated firms such as operators in utilities, air travel or public transportation that need to adapt to a changing environment remain a stepchild in the strategic management literature. The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to this field by investigating a single aspect of these strategies: the combination of economic activities - those based on nontradable and hard-to-accumulate capabilities devoted to creating value for customers - and political activities - those based on lobbying and political capabilities devoted to influencing the policy making process. The question I raise is thus the following: How do deregulated firms efficiently integrate those economic and political capabilities during the deregulation process? To address this question, a dynamic theoretical framework is developed by referring to three bodies of literature: the New Institutional Economies, Austrian economics, and the Resource-based view of the firm. Similar to previous studies, this theoretical framework suggests that former monopolies tend to start the deregulation process by using their existing political capabilities defensively while trying to develop new economic capabilities to compete against new entrants. However, the main contribution of our theoretical analysis is also to show that this integrated strategy cannot be fully efficient because of three factors: the specific costs of integrating economic and political activities within those firms; the evolution of the regulatory governance during the deregulation process, and its impact on the value of the former monopoly's political capabilities; the constraints created by the international expansion of the former monopoly. These three factors push the former monopoly to get rid of existing political capabilities, which are too costly to integrate with new economic capabilities, and to develop new ones that both decrease these costs and are more suited to the new institutional and international environment of those firms. These theoretical results are investigated empirically through the case of telecommunications operators in Europe. A quantitative analysis of the impact of the firms' existing political capabilities on the development of new economic capabilities is first developed. This analysis stresses the role played by the costs of integrating economic and political activities during deregulation. Second, the importance of the evolution of the regulatory governance during deregulation is explored through the in-depth case study of the strategy of British Telecom during the deregulation process. Third, the constraints of the international expansion of former monopolies are outlined by setting-up a game-theoretic model, analyzed in comparative statics and illustrated by the examples of the case of British Telecom, France Télécom, Deutsche Telecom and Telefonica.
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Jean-Philippe Bonardi. L'intégration des stratégies économiques et politiques au sein des entreprises dérèglementées. Cadre théorique et application empirique au cas des opérateurs de télécommunications en Europe. Economies et finances. HEC PARIS, 2001. Français. ⟨NNT : 2001EHEC0077⟩. ⟨pastel-00921200⟩

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