Chimie, chimie quantique et concept d'émergence : étude d'une mise en relation

Abstract : This PhD dissertation starts from the scrutiny of some contemporary chemical practices in order to identify some requisites that a concept of emergence must integrate in order to fit chemists' works. This distributed epistemology takes support on the history of chemistry. Following this line of reasoning, we highlight: (1) the mutual dependence of the levels of organization; (2) the codefinition of relations and relata; and (3) the constitutive role of the modes of intervention in the definition, always open and provisory, of chemical "individuals". A return to the history of philosophy is envisaged so as to study how the British emergentists connected chemistry with emergence. This careful study allows us to discuss our preliminary study. We then consider the formal definitions of emergence, and especially Kim's work, by showing that the ceteris paribus clause on which all those (nomo)logical strategies rest takes another meaning within chemical metrology. In doing so, we stress the role and the importance of two kinds of mereology that enable us to think about emergence from a formal standpoint. We then widen and deepen our investigation by exploring how quantum chemists specifically negotiate a chemical whole, its parts, and the surroundings, within a calculation. A connection is eventually tried and opens several perspectives such as: (1) an ontological and pragmatic approach adapted from Peirce's concept of habits or from Rom Harré's affordances; (2) a pragmatic and transcendental approach first proposed by Michel Bitbol within the framework of quantum physics and which is adapted to chemistry; and (3) a reconceptualization of the concept of emergence which addresses the consequences of the chemical transformations on humans and non-humans by integrating the pragmatic, socio-political, technological, and institutional conditions of chemical activities into the philosophical reflection about emergence.
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Contributor : Jean-Pierre Llored <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, December 31, 2013 - 4:36:40 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, January 23, 2019 - 10:29:07 AM
Long-term archiving on : Monday, March 31, 2014 - 10:20:22 PM

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Jean-Pierre Llored. Chimie, chimie quantique et concept d'émergence : étude d'une mise en relation. Histoire, Philosophie et Sociologie des sciences. Ecole Polytechnique X, 2013. Français. ⟨pastel-00922954⟩

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