Comparaison du captage du CO2 en postcombustion par des solutions d'ammoniaque et d'amines organiques : Évaluation en contacteurs direct et indirect, par des approches cinétiques, thermodynamiques et par modélisation

Abstract : Nowadays rising energy production is associated with increasingly greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Despite of concerns about GHG emissions in atmosphere, fossil fuels will probably remain the main source of primary energy for a long time. The process of CO2 (the main greenhouse gas) capture, generally recommended is the chemical absorption with monoethanolamine (MEA). This process has many problems such as the regeneration cost of amine. This study examines an alternative which consists in absorbing carbon dioxide by ammonia aqueous solution. Moreover, membranes have been developed and coupled to chemical absorption to improve the capture processes and to intensify the gas-liquid transfer. Firstly measurements of CO2 absorption from an aqueous ammonia solution have been conducted. These measurements have been made between 278 and 303 K in a closed reactor type Lewis cell. Maximum CO2 loading, CO2 partial pressure at equilibrium have been determined. The solvents performances have been compared with respect to conventional solvents such as MEA and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Secondly absorption measurements through a membrane contactor have been made. The influence of the material nature constituting the membrane and operating parameters on the capture efficiency has been studied. The results have shown that it is possible to capture CO2 from ammonia through a membrane with a capture efficiency greater than 90 %. The membrane limits ammonia losses but does not eliminate it. Operation simulation of the thermal power plant fed with pulverized coal (CP) including CO2 capture has been performed using the software Aspen Plus. The flue gases containing CO2 from post-combustion have been captured by different solvents. A parametric study has been conducted to clarify the optimal conditions to capture CO2 by ammonia. Comparisons of energy consumption in the case of solvent regeneration for NH3,MEA andMDEA have been performed. The comparative study suggests that the use of ammonia as a solvent in chemical absorption is the most interesting process for the central CP.
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Carol Toro Molina. Comparaison du captage du CO2 en postcombustion par des solutions d'ammoniaque et d'amines organiques : Évaluation en contacteurs direct et indirect, par des approches cinétiques, thermodynamiques et par modélisation. Autre. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ENMP0029⟩. ⟨pastel-00935386v2⟩

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