Méthodes statistiques pour la détection de QTL : nouveaux développements et applications chez le canard mulard

Abstract : QTL detection using the regression of phenotypes on transmission probability is largely used when large families phenotyped for Gaussian trait are available. The aim of this thesis from a methodological point of view, is to propose a method for detection of QTL that takes into account the small number of families on the one hand, and the existence of discrete traits on the other. Thus, we propose to answer the first question, an QTL detection approach, integrating in the calculation of genetic merit of genotyped individuals, the performances calculated over n generations of descendants. The use of a 'de-regressed proof' as a phenotype to be analysed, proposed by Weller et al. (1990) and Tribout et al. (2008) is generalized. Next, we present the results of comparisons of a model assuming normality of the data to a thresholds model assuming a continuous distribution underlying the observed distribution in the QTL detection of discrete traits. Here we demonstrate that the discrete model is more accurate and more powerful when the studied trait has three modalities distributed unevenly in the population.In the second part of the thesis, the data analysis of GENECAN protocol was performed. This is to identify genomic regions or quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with interest traits measured on over-feed mule ducks. The mule duck is an hybrid duck from a female Common duck (Anas Platyrhynchos) and a Muscovy drake (Cairina moschata). Three hundred forty two common ducks designed by back-cross (BC) were generated by crossing a line of Kaiya duck and a heavy line of Pekin duck. These BC females were mated with Muscovy ducks to produce 1600 mules ducks which undergo measures of growth, metabolism during the growth and over-feeding periods, over-feeding, of breast muscle and fatty liver qualities. The phenotypic value of genotyped BC females was estimated for each trait as the average phenotypes of their offspring and weighted by a coefficient of determination (CD) function on the number of offspring and heritability of the studied trait. The genetic map comprised 91 microsatellite markers aggregated into 16 linkage groups (LG) and representing 778 cM. For the uni-trait analysis, twenty-two QTL significant at 1% threshold in chromosome-wide have been mapped. These QTLs are mostly involved in the variability of the breast muscle and fatty liver qualities. Chromosomal regions of interest identified in the framework of this study should be in the future be densified to markers to do the fine mapping.
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Mohamed Kileh Wais. Méthodes statistiques pour la détection de QTL : nouveaux développements et applications chez le canard mulard. Bio-Informatique, Biologie Systémique [q-bio.QM]. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0054⟩. ⟨pastel-00947028⟩

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