Analyse et contrôle de sillages turbulents tridimensionnels : des cas axisymétriques aux automobiles

Abstract : An experimental study of the turbulent wake past different geometries is performed by increasing the complexity from axisymmetric bodies to road vehicles. Whatever the geometry is, two kinds of coherent wake motions are likely to be observed. First, at timescales of the order of 5D/U, D and U being the characteristic size and velocity of the flow respectively, the wake may generate periodic oscillations. These coherent motions are usually associated with the interaction of two facing shear layers of opposite vorticity. As the corresponding frequencies rely at first order on the distance between the shear layers, two distinct frequencies are reported when the afterbody has a cross-flow aspect ratio different than 1. These unsteady global modes seem to weaken when the Reynolds number and the complexity of the geometry increase. The second type of coherent motions corresponds to the development of stationary cross-flow instabilities. They are linked to the symmetry breaking modes observed in laminar regimes and their domains of appearance are defined from geometry considerations in the cases of parallelepiped bodies in ground proximity. These instabilities are responsible for strong asymmetries in the instantaneous flow and may generate bistable dynamics with a characteristic time scale of the order of 1000D/U. The study of these phenomena, combined with sensitivity analyses to small perturbations, places the diminution of the cross-flow asymmetries of the instantaneous wake as a relevant strategy for drag reduction. In particular, it is found that both local and global pressure gradients on the sides of the body are source of streamwise vortices increasing the drag. Parabolic dependences between the drag and the cross-flow forces are reported suggesting similarities with the mechanisms of induced drag that are well-known in aeronautics. Consequently, as they often generate significant wake asymmetries, the development of the cross-flow instabilities is identified as a drag contributor. On the contrary, the part of the drag related to the periodic global modes seems to be negligible especially for complex geometries at high Reynolds number.
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Mathieu Grandemange. Analyse et contrôle de sillages turbulents tridimensionnels : des cas axisymétriques aux automobiles. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. ENSTA ParisTech, 2013. Français. ⟨pastel-00947364⟩

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