CARTOGRAPHIE DE LA POLLUTION PARTICULAIRE EN VILLE

Abstract : The French High Committee of Public Health gives recommendations on the means of improving knowledge of the phenomena related to air pollution in order to better evaluate citizens' exposure to pollution. The work presented in this thesis was conducted in this context and was particularly directed towards the cartography of particle concentrations. Several tools exist which make it possible to derive information on air quality. They are maps obtained by measurement interpolation methods or numerical models. These two approaches have limitations. The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the establishment of a strategy for particulate pollution mapping over urban area at a local scale (100 m). The mapping strategy includes two methods. The typical fields method aims at improving the representation of pollution by applying data fusion methods to existing pollution maps. The data fusion methods are applied in this thesis to map air pollution. A formalization of the typical fields method is given and tested on a case-study. The network densification method aims at creating pollution maps by interpolating pollution values provided by measurement stations. Virtual stations are added to the real stations belonging to the measurement network to make it denser thus improving the interpolation. The virtual stations are determined using a classification of elements describing the environment of the real stations. In a case-study of Strasbourg, 635 virtual stations where added to the five real stations located in this city. The mapping by interpolation with these stations was improved qualitatively and quantitatively (up to 70 %). In order to validate the definition of the virtual stations, satellite images are used. Wavelengths around 815 nm are the most sensitive to particles. The spectral band (TM1) of the TM-Landsat5 sensor is appropriate for the detection of particles and was used to validate the virtual stations. 70 % of the virtual stations were found to be valid with this approach.
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Anne-Lise Beaulant. CARTOGRAPHIE DE LA POLLUTION PARTICULAIRE EN VILLE. Sciences de l'environnement. Université Paris-Diderot - Paris VII, 2006. Français. ⟨pastel-00949078⟩

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