Imagerie polarimétrique pour le diagnostic de néoplasies intra épithélialesdu col utérin : étude de conisations et de lames histologiques de tissus conjonctifs

André Nazac 1
1 Caractérisations optiques
LPICM - Laboratoire de physique des interfaces et des couches minces [Palaiseau]
Abstract : Being sensitive to the polarization of the light backscattered by the object under study rather than its intensity, polarimetric imaging may reveal some properties of the object to which ordinary intensity is blind. Polarimetric imaging thus features a strong potential for the development of new optical diagnostic for medical purposes. Polarimetric imaging is particularly sensitive to any modifications of the spatial structure of fibrillar collagen in connective tissues, which in turn are known to occur in many diseases, among which cervical dysplasias and genital prolapse. This work was mainly devoted to studying, by means of polarimetric microscopy, the collagen structure in histological plates taken from conisations (front part of uterine cervices extracted because of suspicion of dysplasias) and vaginal tissue. The objective was to eventually correlate the observations with the presence or absence of the considered disease. After a brief introduction, the first chapter describes the current management of cervical cancer, its strengths and weaknesses and the need to develop a new optical diagnostic technique. The second chapter is devoted to the prolapse, with particular emphasis on the usefulness of early detection of persons at risk. The third chapter summarizes the properties of the light polarization needed to understand the following. The results are reported in the last two chapters. In healthy vaginal wall tissue, the collagen is differently oriented in each of the three main layers (adventice, muscularis and mucosa) while this structure disappears in presence of prolapse. About uterine cervices, we observed a well organized collagen layer, just beneath the malpighian epithelium, with much larger retardation in healthy regions with respect to dysplastic ones. This so far unknown layer seems to be primariy responsible for the main trends observed in thick samples in backscattering geometry, namely much stronger retardation and depolarization in healthy versus dysplastic regions of malpighian epithelium.
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André Nazac. Imagerie polarimétrique pour le diagnostic de néoplasies intra épithélialesdu col utérin : étude de conisations et de lames histologiques de tissus conjonctifs. Biophysique [physics.bio-ph]. Ecole Polytechnique X, 2013. Français. ⟨pastel-00956597⟩

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