Création et caractérisation d’une source ajustable de paires d’atomes corrélés

Josselin Ruaudel 1
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Optique atomique
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : This thesis describes the experimental realization and characterization of a source of pairs of correlated atoms. This tunable source is based upon four waves mixing in an optical lattice. The created atomic pairs are similar to photon pairs made by parametric down conversion and open the way toward more elaborate quantum atom optic experiments. By placing a Bose-Einstein condensate in a moving optical lattice the phase matching conditions are fulfilled and twins atoms are spontaneously produced. Thanks to a single atom detector with three-dimensional resolution, we were able to characterize our source of pairs. By studying the phase matching conditions, we proved that the atoms are preferentially produced in two narrow velocity classes conserving both momentum and energy. By modifying the duration and the velocity of the lattice with respect to the atoms, one can tune the output modes and their populations providing a fully tunable process. Moreover, we have demonstrated the important effect of interactions -especially of mean field effects- that modifies the energy conservation. The single atom detection provided also a convenient way to look at statistical properties of the twins atoms: we have demonstrated strong correlation between atoms from the same pair and also we have observed a reduction below the shot noise of the noise on the number of atoms in correlated modes. Such a reduction is a strong indication of the non-classical nature of the produced atomic pairs.
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Josselin Ruaudel. Création et caractérisation d’une source ajustable de paires d’atomes corrélés. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Institut d’Optique Graduate School, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013IOTA0003⟩. ⟨pastel-00961194⟩

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