Étude par éléments finis des effets de la distraction ostéogénique symphysaire sur l’articulation temporo-mandibulaire

Abstract : Mandibular surgery such as distraction osteogenesis can generate anatomical modifications in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) discs. The resulting stress modifications can be at the origin of a temporary or permanent disc dislocation with degeneration and may cause severe oral and facial pain or masticatory dysfunctions. The aim of this work was to predict stress modification in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) after mandibular symphyseal distraction (SD). This surgical procedure is used to resolve dental crowding on the mandibular dental arch.In order to study the potential impact of such a surgery on TMJ discs a three-dimensional finite element analysis of a complete mastication model was performed. Geometric data were obtained from MRI and CT scans of a healthy male patient and each component was meshed individually. The distraction was performed on the model with a 10 mm expansion after simulation of a surgical vertical osteotomy line in the mandibular midline region. The geometry and mesh of the bone callus were generated. The bone callus was modeled as a strengthened region characterized by a Young's modulus corresponding to consolidated bone to predict the long-term biomechanical effect of SD. Boundary conditions for jaw closing simulations were represented by different jaw muscle load directions. The von Mises stress distributions in both joint discs and condyles during closing conditions were analyzed and compared before and after SD. Contrary to usual analyses, no symmetry was used, and the whole mandible was analyzed in order to exhibit potential asymmetries. Stress distribution was similar in discs and on condylar surfaces in the pre- and post-distraction models. The outcomes of this study suggest that anatomical changes in TMJ structures should not predispose to long-term tissue fatigue and demonstrate the absence of clinical permanent TMJ symptoms after SD.
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Charles Savoldelli. Étude par éléments finis des effets de la distraction ostéogénique symphysaire sur l’articulation temporo-mandibulaire. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ENMP0062⟩. ⟨pastel-00962150⟩

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