Influence de l'évolution climatique sur la qualité de l'air en Europe

Abstract : Air pollution is the result of high emissions of pollutants (and pollutant precursors) and unfavorable meteorological conditions. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the pollutants of great concern for human health. Every year, a repeated or continuous exposure to such particles is responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases among the concerned populations and leads to premature deaths. Climate change is expected to impact meteorological variables (temperature, wind, precipitation,...). Those variables will influence numerous factors, which will affect air quality (emissions, precipitation scavenging, gas/particle equilibrium,...). A large body of studies have already investigated the effects of climate change on ozone, whereas only a few have addressed its effects on PM2.5 concentrations, especially over Europe. This is the subject we investigate in this thesis. Large-scale circulation is closely linked to surface meteorological variables. Therefore, it is expected that it will impact PM2.5 concentrations too. In this thesis, we develop a statistical algorithm to estimate future PM2.5 concentrations from present PM2.5 observations, selected meteorological variables and tools to represent this circulation (weather regimes and weather types). The lack of daily observations of PM2.5 and its components over Europe prevents us to used observations. Consequently, we have created a pseudo-observed PM2.5 data set, by using the Polyphemus/Polair3D air quality Chemical-Transport Model. Both operational and dynamic evaluations were conducted against EMEP measurements, to ensure that the influence of meteorological variables on PM2.5 concentrations is correctly reproduced by the model. As far as we know, this dynamic evaluation of an air quality model with respect to meteorology is the first conducted to date.Future PM2.5 concentrations display an increase over the U.K., northern France, Benelux, and in the Balkans, and a decrease over northern, eastern, and southeastern Europe, Italy, and Poland compared to the historical period. The evolution of weather type frequencies is not sufficient to explain the PM2.5 changes. The relationships between the large-scale circulation and the weather types, between the weather types and meteorological variables, and between meteorological variables and PM2.5 concentrations evolve with future meteorological conditions and also contribute to PM2.5 changes. The statistical method developed in this thesis is a new approach to estimate the impact of climate and climate change on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe. Despite some uncertainties, this approach is easily applicable to different models and scenarios, as well as other geographical regions and other pollutants. Using observations to establish the pollutant-meteorology relationship would make this approach more robust
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Eve Lecoeur. Influence de l'évolution climatique sur la qualité de l'air en Europe. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris-Est, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PEST1176⟩. ⟨pastel-00966991⟩

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