Carbon-Based Nanomaterials as an Anode for Lithium Ion Battery

Fei Yao 1 Costel Sorin Cojocaru 1
1 NanoMaDe
LPICM - Laboratoire de physique des interfaces et des couches minces [Palaiseau]
Abstract : In this thesis work, carbon-based nanomaterials using as an anode for lithium ion battery have been generally investigated. Compared to typical micron-sized carbon materials, nanosized carbon materials exhibited great potentials not only in practical anode application but also in the fundamental science exploration of Li ion diffusion. In the case of practical application, one dimensional carbon nanofibers (CNFs) fabricated by electrospinning was prepared for anode material. The structure involves neither a metal substrate nor binders and therefore eventually benefited the capacity and long term stability. Yet, the energy density is still limited to 370 mAh/g of conventional carbon. In order to improve the capacity of raw carbon nanofibers, silicon, a high Li storage material, was incorporated by electrochemical deposition. The resulted Si/CNF mat improved clearly the capacity of carbon materials more than twice for most of cases. In the case of fundamental study, chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-synthesized two dimensional graphene was chosen to be a media to reveal the diffusion pathways of Li ion. Compared to typical graphite which contains both basal and edge planes, a well defined basal plane with large area can be realized in graphene to provide a comprehensive picture of lithium diffusion mechanism. We have discovered that electrochemical reaction of electrode (substrate/graphene) not only is related to the number of graphene layers but also relies on the defect sites on the basal plane of graphene. Combing the experimental results and density functional theory calculations, we proved that basal plane hindered lithium ion diffusion with a high diffusion barrier height, whereas divacancies and higher order defects can be shortcuts for lithium ion diffusion.
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Fei Yao, Costel Sorin Cojocaru. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials as an Anode for Lithium Ion Battery. Micro and nanotechnologies/Microelectronics. Ecole Polytechnique X, 2013. English. ⟨pastel-00967913⟩

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