Mélanges de polymères thermoplastiques à matrice biosourcée : amélioration de la résistance au choc d'un dérivé cellulosique

Abstract : This work has been funded by the Industrial Chair in Biopalstics, financed by MINES ParisTech and fives industrial partners: Arkema, L'Oréal, Nestlé, PSA Peugeot-Citroën and Schneider Electric, whose objective is to develop new durable biobased materials. The aim of this thesis is to find new properties for an old-fashioned biobased plastic – cellulose esters – by blending with polyolefins. We started the project with a screening of the cellulose ester (cellulose acetate butyrate or CAB) properties. Thus, we were able to define the goal of the project: improving impact resistance of CAB by adding a finely dispersed polyolefin phase. Indeed, CAB is very brittle: its notched Charpy resilience is below 2 kJ/m². To decrease the size and the spacing of dispersed phase nodules, we developed two different approaches. First, several blends between CAB and polyethylenes (PE) with various densities have been prepared by internal mixer. Maleinated compatibilizers have been used to decrease interfacial tension between phases. Nodules sizes, measured from scanning electron microscope images ranked according to the viscosity and elasticity ratios (PE/CAB). Those ratios have been measured by dynamic rheometry. Blends resilience increased compared to CAB but did not exceed 6 kJ/m². In the second approach, functionalized (maleinated) polyolefins have been used as a single dispersed phase. Increased functionality led to improved interfacial adhesion. Nodules size and their spacing have been significantly decreased. Selected blends were prepared by twin-screw extrusion and impact bars were injected. For some formulations, a small (near 0.1 µm) mean matrix ligaments thickness (distance between two neighboring nodules) was obtained and led to the brittle-ductile transition of the material, with a resilience higher than 60 kJ/m².
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François Besson. Mélanges de polymères thermoplastiques à matrice biosourcée : amélioration de la résistance au choc d'un dérivé cellulosique. Autre. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ENMP0067⟩. ⟨pastel-00971268⟩

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