Inégalités de mobilité dans le Grand Santiago et la région Ile-de-France : politiques de logement, des transports et gouvernance métropolitaine

Abstract : Our era is characterized by unprecedented global challenges that require a critical review and a reformulation of the principles of social and economic organization, particularly in the field of urban planning. The concentration of population in major conurbations, their growing segregation and their ecological footprint, stress the importance of adapting metropolitan institutions. Within this large field of research, this thesis focuses on the problem of inequalities of residential location and daily travel, and on the limits of public action to address these challenges. Thus, we develop the hypothesis that the accumulation of residential and travel handicaps constitute a form of social injustice that could be objectified by quantitative measures at a mesosocial level. The ethical corollary of this observation in terms of public action leads us to propose a complementary hypothesis. Indeed, mitigation of urban inequalities would require institutions having the capacity to coordinate various sectoral policies, with territorial coherence and in response to social demands. These two hypotheses are articulated in a dialectical argument that develops operative concepts and methodologies for the study of the right to the city, which we conceive as a synthesis of socio-economic and political empowerment. In particular, urban mobility is defined in this work as the interweaving practices of residential location and daily travel at the household level. This set of capabilities is necessary for the blooming of citizens, but the unjust connotation of differences measured by this kind statistics is difficult to demonstrate. Thus, the main objective of this thesis is the development and application of a methodology for quantitative analysis at the metropolitan level, capable to assert if there is or not an unfair limitation of urban mobility for a certain social group. With this purpose, we analyze four complementary indicators, each measuring a different dimension of space-time tradeoffs at household level. This are: the daily use of time, travel and housing efforts, accessibility to jobs and other destinations, and utility of urban mobility. In sum, simultaneous disadvantages among these measures would suggest that some social groups are deprived of adjustment mechanisms that would allow them to benefit from urban resources, what we qualify as being unfair. In particular, we show that the effect of social policies in Ile-de-France seems to be antagonized by the extension of its urban area, attaining levels of socio-spatial inequalities close to those observed in Greater Santiago, where redistributive mechanisms are extremely weak. This convergence emphasizes the importance of analyzing the limits of metropolitan governance systems to resolve such inequities. This issue is addressed by the observation of two recent public controversies, the implementation of Transantiago and the debates around the Grand Paris, and by the study of the evolution of planning instruments. This institutional analysis is based on a synthesis of the rules and resources of public action, and on interviews with experts and authorities. In both study cases and by different mechanisms, there would be failures of representation for vulnerable groups in the arenas of metropolitan governance, thus contributing to the widening socio-spatial inequalities. Finally, guaranteeing the right to the city in the Greater Santiago and the Ile -de- France would require complementary technical and policy innovations. These could be implemented in a mesosocial level, aiming for the improvement of urban mobility and political representation of vulnerable households, according to the specificities of each sub-metropolitan territory
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Matias Garreton. Inégalités de mobilité dans le Grand Santiago et la région Ile-de-France : politiques de logement, des transports et gouvernance métropolitaine. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Paris-Est, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PEST1178⟩. ⟨pastel-00975068⟩

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