Impact du développement urbain du bassin versant de la rivière Mingoa sur le lac municipal de Yaoundé (Cameroun)

Abstract : The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of urban dynamics on the receiving aquatic environment in tropical African conditions to better understand African environmental problems, often left aside by the research. As study site was chosen the upper part of the Mingoa watershed, one of the small and highly urbanized watersheds of Yaoundé city (Cameroon). The history of the impact was studied through the analysis of persistent and emerging pollutants in dated sediment cores (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, PCB, PAH, nonylphenol, parabens and triclosan), and the evolution of the watershed urban development. For trace elements analysis, sediment samples were digested with repeated additions of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and analysed ICPAES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission). Organic contaminats were analysed by GC/MS (HAP, PCB, NP), and by LC/MSMS (parabens, TCS) after microwave extraction and purification on silica gel or OASIS HLB cartridges. A new method was developed for parabens and triclosan analysis in sediments. Informations about the Mingoa river watershed urban development from 1952 when the Municipal Lake was created to 2010 were obtained after a documentary research and local surveys (population and small businesses).The input of pollutants was traced from 1950 to 2010. Three periods were identified in sediment cores according to contaminants levels:•1952-1964: contaminants concentrations were constant, and usually smaller than quantification limits. The watershed was not very urbanised during the last decade of the colonisation. The country independence was obtained in 1960.•1964-1991: contaminants concentrations increased. The post colonial period is characterised by population growth and infrastructures development.•1991-2010: concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and PCB stopped to increase after 1991 and remained constant until 2010. This period is characterized by the economic crisis (from the end of 80's to the end of 90's) with no investment in infrastructures. Sources analysis indicated that these contaminants were emitted by building activities. Cu and Pb concentration increased until 2010. PAH concentration remained constant between 1991 and 2000, and increased until 2010. A correlation was observed between Cu, Pb and PAH levels and traffic development in Yaoundé city. Cu and Pb were linked to the car fleet. Pb was also liked to gasoline use while PAH were linked to diesel use. Officially, Pb is no more used in gasoline since 2005. But that stop was not identified in our study. After 2005, we suggested that either it was too early to observe that stop, or another source of Pb could be the recycling of car batteries. Concerning PAH, ratios analyses indicated diesel as a possible source. The highest concentrations of nonylphenol and methylparaben were observed after 2000 due to an increase of the house and personal care products market. Contaminants fluxes were also analysed. Maxima were measured in 1991 for PCB, Cd, Pb and Zn, in 2003 for NP and in 2010 for PAH, Cu and MeP. Between 1991 and 2000, during the economic crisis, fluxes were constants. After 2000, fluxes increased again except for PCB and Cd.Contaminants levels observed in the Municipal Lake sediments were lower than in Western countries, and did not attain the limits set by Environmental protection agencies. This is mainly due to the residential function of the watershed, and the poor economic level of its population. We observed that the presence of a marsh upstream the lake also tempers the impact of the watershed on the lake ecosystem, because higher concentrations were mesasured in general
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Marielle Naah. Impact du développement urbain du bassin versant de la rivière Mingoa sur le lac municipal de Yaoundé (Cameroun). Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris-Est, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PEST1131⟩. ⟨pastel-00976636⟩

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