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Conception et optimisation d’un programme de sélection de petits ruminants en milieu tropical : cas du caprin Créole en Guadeloupe

Abstract : This thesis aims at providing the scientific and technical basis needed for the settingup of a breeding programme applied to an indigenous guadeloupean breed of goat in the tropics.The local Creole breed of goat in Guadeloupe is a small-sized breed with good maternal qualities. This hardy breed comes from the natural mixing of breeds from Africa and Europe. It is well adapted to tropical climates and tolerates internal parasites. Guadeloupean farmers use Creole breed for meat production. Since 2008, the breeder's association Cabricoop, extension services and INRA collaborate to implement a breeding programme for Creole goat. This thesis presents the different steps needed for the design and optimisation of this programme. Concerning the breeding objective, a survey of Cabricoop farmers has shown the importance given to growth and maternal qualities in goats. In order to quantify this importance on sound economic basis, we modelled the components of the goat farm profit and derive the economic values of the different traits included in the breeding objective. We derived the economic values for production (body weight and dressing percentage at 11 months of age) and reproduction traits (fertility) as well as parasites resistance and resilience traits (FEC= number of worm eggs in the faeces and PCV= packed cell volume). Whatever the quantity or cost of input, the increase of one genetic standard deviation of body weight or fertility traits generated the highest profit. The standardised economic values of these traits explained 70 to 90% of the sum of the standardised economic values of all traits in the breeding objective. Genetic parameters of all traits except dressing percentage were derived for Creole goat. Heritability was moderate for body weight (0.32), low for fertility (0.11) and intermediate for PCV (0.13) and OPG (0.18). Genetic correlations were either low or favourable. Simulations of selection responses for a closed nucleus herd of 300 Creole does show that it is possible to improve weight, dressing percentage, fertility, PCV, and FEC simultaneously. Improving resistance and resilience to parasites decreases slightly the expected selection response on production traits without much trade-off. It is therefore possible to conciliate production, reproduction, and adaptation objectives for Creole goat in Guadeloupe. This thesis has provided the basis for the implementation of a sustainable breeding programme for a local breed in a tropical environment.
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Mélanie Jaquot - Gunia. Conception et optimisation d’un programme de sélection de petits ruminants en milieu tropical : cas du caprin Créole en Guadeloupe. Sciences agricoles. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0039⟩. ⟨pastel-00992186⟩

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