architecture of biofilms and resistance to disinfection : contribution of multimodal fluorescence imaging

Abstract : In natural, industrial or medical environments, microorganisms are present mainly in being associated with surfaces in highly organized communities called biofilms. These biological structures cosntitute a surprisingly effective survival strategy showing a large ability to withstand environmental stresses such as cleaning and disinfection treatments. Therefore, biofilms have a considerable impact on public health because they allow the persistence and transmission of pathogens. In this context, this work aimed to better understand the phenomena limiting the effectiveness of disinfectants in biofilms noticeably by using innovative imaging fluorescence non-invasive techniques. The ultimate goal was to provide data which can help to optimize disinfection treatments. In the first part, a high-throughput structural method based on confocal microscopy was developed and used to study the architectural diversity of bacterial biofilms formed by a wide range of strains. This study allowed us to identify strains of interest in terms of biofilm structure for the second part of the work. In particular, we demonstrated the ability of B. subtilis to form protruding structures with a specific architecture in a submerged system. In the second part, the spatiotemporal dynamic of the action of disinfectants were visualized in the biofilms of P. aeruginosa or B. subtilis strains by a time-lapse fluorescence confocal microscopy method. Using this technique, we showed that benzalkonium chloride encountered problems of penetration in the biofilms formed by P. aeruginosa strains. The correlation of kinetic inactivation parameters and data obtained by the characterization biochemical matrix suggested a key role of extracellular substances in the penetration limitations of the disinfectant. We also observed a pronounced resistance of the biofilm formed by a strain of B. subtilis isolated from a medical device to peracetic acid at the in-use concentration and time of biocide in medical areas. In addition, three-dimensional structures formed by this strains afforded protection to the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in mixed biofilm against the same treatment This point highlights the importance of multi-species interactions in bacterial resistance to disinfectants and in the persistence of pathogens in our environments.
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Arnaud Bridier. architecture of biofilms and resistance to disinfection : contribution of multimodal fluorescence imaging. Agricultural sciences. AgroParisTech, 2011. English. ⟨NNT : 2011AGPT0026⟩. ⟨pastel-01002653⟩

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