Effects of organic material inputs on the biological control of banana parasitic nematodes in Guadeloupe (F.W.I.)

Abstract : In French West Indies, banana crops are generally managed as an intensive mechanized monoculture, and one of main problems to solve is the control of plant-parasitic nematodes. In this study, the effects of the input of different organic materials, gross or composted, on the biological control of nematodes were investigated. The analyze of the literature showed that the effects of an organic material input on plant-parasitic nematode populations and on their damage on the plant are complex and vary highly according to the biochemical characteristics of the products and the plant-parasitic nematode species. Thus, organic materials that release great amounts of mineral nitrogen during their decomposition promote root growth, which increases the feeding resource for plant-parasitic nematodes and/or plant tolerance to their attacks. Organic material decomposition can also release nematotoxic chemical compounds. Lastly, carbon input can lead to nematode community diversification, soil food web complexification, and, as a result, favoring the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes by top predators or microflora. We evaluated the induction of the biological control of banana parasitic nematodes by an organic input, using soil nematofauna analyses and measuring the growth of young banana plants. We thus conducted two pot experimentations during 13 weeks. The organic materials tested were four raw and four composted organic materials that were locally available. The raw organic materials trial showed that three amongst the four amendments (sugarcane bagasse, sugarcane refinery sludge and plant residues) led to a decrease of parasitic nematode populations within banana roots, the control efficiency depending on nematode species. In contrast, the fourth type of organic material, sewage sludge, did not induce the decrease of the parasitic pressure. Changes in root growth were not an explanatory factor and the better soil conditions for plant growth did not reduce the impact of plant-parasitic nematode. Only sugarcane refinery sludge engendered overall positive effect on the banana plant, decreasing parasitic pressure and enhancing plant growth. Sugarcane bagasse and plant residues, mainly composed of lignins and cellulose, led to significant changes in nematode community structure, increasing fungivorous nematode populations and, only after bagasse supply, those of carnivorous nematodes. The compost trial showedndment that the three commercial composts produced by SITA Verde (Biogwa, Ecogwa B, Ecogwa D) and the commercial organic amendment Vegethumus (Phallipou-Frayssinet) induced a decrease of plant-parasitic nematode populations and that this control depended on banana parasitic nematode species. In this trial, the control of banana parasitic nematodes was linked to overall biomass of banana root system. The input of Ecogwa D and Vegethumus composts boosted microbivorous nematode populations, but only Vegethumus favored the fungal decomposition pathway. Last and final summary in the thesis.
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Perrine Tabarant. Effects of organic material inputs on the biological control of banana parasitic nematodes in Guadeloupe (F.W.I.). Agricultural sciences. AgroParisTech, 2011. English. ⟨NNT : 2011AGPT0019⟩. ⟨pastel-01002831⟩

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