Conception participative et évaluation numérique de scénarios spatialisés de systèmes de culture. Cas de la gestion du phoma du colza et de la durabilité des résistances

Abstract : The intensification and the homogenization of agricultural systems led to agrosystèmes that are more sensible to pests and diseases. To limit the impacts of these pests and diseases without increasing pesticides use, an efficient solution is the use of resistant cultivars. Sustainability of these resistances can be low, in link with the adaptation of pathogen populations. It is thus necessary to design cropping systems allowing both the control of pests and diseases and preservation of cultivar resistances. Such management strategies can combine cropping practices and their spatial organization, for pathosystems whose agents are wind-dispersed. The design of these strategies can benefit from participatory approaches, taking into account the local cropping systems and stakeholders' organizations. The evaluation of these strategies, hardly testable in reality due to the spatial and temporal scales involved, can benefit from a modeling approach. Within this scope, this PhD thesis designed and tested, in two study regions, a participatory method of scenarios design, aiming at building with local stakeholders scenarios of spatial organization of cropping systems and to assess them with regards to their performances on phoma stem canker of winter oilseed rape and resistance durability management. Participatory designed scenarios explore agricultural futures that may happen by identifying the possible evolutions of the context (economic, political, regulatory or epidemic), in a predictive or more exploratory way. Scenarios are then evaluated numerically with a pre-existing model, for three criteria relevant for the stakeholders: yield losses, structure and size of the pathogen population. This analysis has been performed at two complementary spatial scales: the regional and the local scale, considering hundreds of meters around fields cropped with sensitive cultivars. These analyses showed the importance of crop rotations, cultivars and tillage for the evolution of the disease and resistance sustainability. These analyses also showed the necessity of taking into account different scales for disease management. Indeed, size of the pathogen population and yield losses are well related to the landscape composition in terms of cropping practices, but a more local scale is necessary for the assessment of the genetic structure of the pathogen population. This indicator is thus significantly linked with the cultivars and cropping practices in the 500 meters around fields cropped with the considered resistance. Finally, we explored spatial (isolation) and temporal rules for rapeseed spatial and temporal allocations that could be used to manage resistance. For these strategies to be applied, coordination between stakeholders at the agricultural territory would be necessary, which could be necessary in case of strong phoma stem canker epidemics. The method we applied could be used to explore other thematic with a spatial component, as for instance pests or erosion. This could allow a multi-criteria analysis, for instance taking into account pathogens of different crops included in a rotation, thus identifying the cropping practices that could promote management of these local problems.
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Laure Hossard. Conception participative et évaluation numérique de scénarios spatialisés de systèmes de culture. Cas de la gestion du phoma du colza et de la durabilité des résistances. Sciences agricoles. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0076⟩. ⟨pastel-01041619⟩

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