Modèles simplifiés d’Analyse de Cycle de Vie : cadre méthodologique et applications aux filières de conversion d’énergie

Abstract : The energy transition debate is a key issue for today and the coming years. One of the challenges is to limit the environmental impacts of electricity production. Decision support tools, sufficiently accurate, simple to use, accounting for environmental aspects and favoring future energetic choices, must be implemented. However, the environmental assessment of the energy pathways is complex, and it means considering a two levels characterization. The “energy pathway” is the 1st level and corresponds to its environmental distribution, to compare overall pathways. The “system pathway” is the 2nd level and compares environmental impacts of systems within each pathway. We have devised a generic methodology covering both necessary characterization levels by estimating the energy pathways environmental profiles while allowing a simple comparison of its systems environmental impacts. This methodology is based on the definition of a parameterized Life Cycle Assessment model and considers, through a Global Sensitivity Analysis, the environmental impacts of a large sample of systems representative of an energy pathway. As a second step, this methodology defines simplified models based on few key parameters identified as inducing the largest variability in the energy pathway environmental impacts. These models assess in a simple way the systems environmental impacts, avoiding any complex LCAs. This reduction methodology has been applied to the onshore wind power energy pathway in Europe and the photovoltaic energy pathway in France.
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Pierryves Padey. Modèles simplifiés d’Analyse de Cycle de Vie : cadre méthodologique et applications aux filières de conversion d’énergie. Génie des procédés. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ENMP0083⟩. ⟨pastel-01057847⟩

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