Assessment of the overall impact of diet on colorectal cancer in Cambodia, with special emphasis on endogenous and exogenous chemicals

Abstract : From the projection in the future of international bodies, non-communicable diseases such as cancer may increase more than communicable diseases in developing countries. The highlight of this burden may be due to the changing of dietary patterns and lifestyle. Currently, the evolution of food consumption, consumption pattern and colorectal cancer is very worrying worldwide. It is a disease in economically ‘developed' populations, and it is the second killer among other cancers; however, its incidence seems lower in poor countries. As the other developing countries, Cambodia has no system of food survey, no monitoring and control system of chemical substances, and also, there is no control and registration system for cancer. Thus, the objective of this research was to start the first observation of the relationship between dietary pattern and colorectal cancer in Cambodia. The general idea of the study was to identify the dietary patterns, and larger contributors to colorectal cancer in Cambodia, then to translate them into calories, nutrients and bioactive compounds, based on the existing database. Another goal was to assess the difference of dietary habit and cooking methods in the studied population that could lead to the production of colorectal carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines (HAs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). In order to create the food consumption database needed for food risk assessment, a food consumption survey was conducted using 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. A dietary assessment of HAs and BaP has been done, in order to establish a hierarchy of the importance of the risk that these substances represent to the health of this population. Dietary exposures to HAs and BaP were obtained by combining food consumption data, obtained from the individual food survey specially designed and carried out during this research, with the contamination data gathered from chemical analysis reported in the recent literature. The observation results have been compared with the toxicological reference values. The results show that dietary patterns in Cambodia have not changed yet to adapt to the Western diet, and contain higher levels of protected nutrients. The exposure to neoformed contaminants (HAs and BaP) was lower than the values reported among other Asian countries, and lowest as compared to the developed countries. The presence of endogenous compounds such as carbohydrates, dietary fibers, calcium and vitamin C, seems to protect the Cambodian population from colorectal cancer. Further research is needed to study the interaction of diet, lifestyle and the genetic background, and other factors as well.
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Sokneang In. Assessment of the overall impact of diet on colorectal cancer in Cambodia, with special emphasis on endogenous and exogenous chemicals. Food engineering. AgroParisTech, 2012. English. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0014⟩. ⟨pastel-01058622⟩

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