Etude cinétique et optimisation multicritères du couplage déshydratation imprégnation par immersion : séchage convectif de la poire, la pomme et l'abricot

Abstract : The aim of this work was the study of the impact of both drying processes: dehydration-impregnation by soaking (DIS) and convective drying performed separately or in combination on mass transfers of water and sucrose and on the main quality characteristics of the fruit (total difference of colour, total phenols (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) contents, shrinking, water activity) by taking the pear Conference as a model. The processes effect on the pieces of pear was apprehended according two approaches: (i) a global study of the impact of the variables of commands on the quality of finished product and (ii) a kinetic study of nutritional compounds and the quality (colour, shrinkage, and water activity). Central Composite Design with four factors (sucrose concentration: 25-65 %, temperature: 20-60 °C, immersion time: 0.5-6.5 hr and drying temperature: 30-70 °C) at five levels each was used for pears processing. During DIS, the variables: immersion time, temperature and concentration of sucrose solution had a significant effect (p<0.01) in the loss of water, the solid gain and the quality attributes of pears. The losses in AA are higher than those in TP and are essentially due to the oxidation and the leaching with water. During the convective drying, the losses in TP and in AA depend more on the time of the process rather than the temperature of exposition. They reach respectively 80% and 34% after 10 h of drying at 30 °C. The color change of pear depends on the time and temperature of treatment and is more pronounced at the end of drying. Predictive and quadratic models were suggested to link the responses variables (aw, total colour difference, TP loss and total time treatment) to operational parameters of both studied processes. The losses in AA decrease linearly with the duration of DIS. A multicriteria optimization using response surface methodology (RSM) was proposed (minimal losses in TP and in AA, reduced total processing time and total difference in colour and an aw inferior to 0.6) for the combination DIS/convective drying. The optimal conditions are: osmotic solution at 28°C and 25°Brix, a DIS lasting 30 min and a convective drying at 60 °C. Otherwise, the temperature effects (30, 45 and 60 °C) and the sucrose impregnation by DIS (10 and 65 min, 70°Brix, 30 °C) upon the desorption isotherms and the transition temperature (Tg) of pears, apples and apricots were determined. The sucrose impregnation diminishes the influence of temperature on its sorption ability. It generates a depressing effect on water activity and a rise of pear hygroscopicity, apple and apricot at a high temperature. The desorption isotherms of fresh and sucrose impregnated apricot present a crossing of curves which mark the inverse of the effect of temperature on isotherms. The Tg depends on the temperature, the sucrose content and the fruit water content (X). For constant water content, the rise of temperature and of the duration de DIS result in the increase of Tg. The phase diagrams (Tg=f(X) et Tg=f(aw)) of fruits were established at 30, 45 and 60°C and the critical water content as well as the critical water activities were determined. Water content at the end of drying inferior or equal to 0.02 g/g d.b. is recommended to obtain stable fruit pieces at microbiological, physiochemical and rheological levels.
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Nadia Djendoubi Mrad. Etude cinétique et optimisation multicritères du couplage déshydratation imprégnation par immersion : séchage convectif de la poire, la pomme et l'abricot. Ingénierie des aliments. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0097⟩. ⟨pastel-01058900⟩

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