Contribution à l’étude de systèmes divisés alimentaires par observation de microstructures au cours de traitements thermo-mécaniques

Abstract : Rheo-optic is a recent technique which can be used to create links between rheological properties and meso/microsctructures of model or complex (food) systems. A novel rheo-optical shearing device was designed for studying this relationships within complex food systems. The device has been build to be adapted on an inverted confocal microscope. Specifications of the shear cell are: a) a controlled translational shear between 2 parallel plates with three different motion modes (continuous, oscillatory, strain jump); b) a thermal control; and c) an observation on an inverted confocal microscope. Due to a vacuum system, the set up of an experiment is easy and fast ensuring reproducible optical properties (planarity, parallelism). Temperature, responsible of numerous modifications of structures in a food matrix, is also controlled. A piloting software allows an easy use of the shear cell. Validation of the motion modes has been carried out using a microgel, containing fluorescent probes (spheres) and tracking some of the particles. Next, in order to test and develop methods of observation under shear, taking into account the optical-mechanical balance, bread dough observation has been performed. Well known and described in the lab, bread dough is a dispersion of air bubbles and starch granules in a gluten network. Evolution on this gluten network depending on the formulation of the bread dough has been studied under oscillatory shearing. The composition effect on the microstructure and its evolution were observed and will be commented. Image analysis based on grayscale mathematical morphology has been carried out in order to try to quantify the rheological properties and microstructures. Finally, by a controlled increase of temperature, the growth of an air bubble in bread dough containing yeast was followed during proofing. The influence and the disposition of fat globules at the bubble air-protein interface along this growing process were followed. Thanks to the rheo-optical device, images of microstructures obtained under controlled shear are compared to their rheological behaviour.
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Jean-Baptiste Boitte. Contribution à l’étude de systèmes divisés alimentaires par observation de microstructures au cours de traitements thermo-mécaniques. Ingénierie des aliments. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0064⟩. ⟨pastel-01059705⟩

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