Optimization of association genetics and genomic selection strategies for populations of different diversity levels : Application in maize (Zea mays L.)

Abstract : Major progresses have been achieved in genotyping technologies, which makes it easier to decipher the relationship between genotype and phenotype. This contributed to the understanding of the genetic architecture of traits (Genome Wide Association Studies, GWAS), and to better predictions of genetic value to improve breeding efficiency (Genomic Selection, GS). The objective of this thesis was to define efficient ways of leading these approaches. We first derived analytically the power from classical GWAS mixed model and showed that it was lower for markers with a small minimum allele frequency, a strong differentiation among population subgroups and that are strongly correlated with markers used for estimating the kinship matrix K. We considered therefore two alternative estimators of K. Simulations showed that these were as efficient as classical estimators to control false positive and provided more power. We confirmed these results on true datasets collected on two maize panels, and could increase by up to 40% the number of detected associations. These panels, genotyped with a 50k SNP-array and phenotyped for flowering and biomass traits, were used to characterize the diversity of Dent and Flint groups and detect QTLs. In GS, studies highlighted the importance of relationship between the calibration set (CS) and the predicted set on the accuracy of predictions. Considering low present genotyping cost, we proposed a sampling algorithm of the CS based on the G-BLUP model, which resulted in higher accuracies than other sampling strategies for all the traits considered. It could reach the same accuracy than a randomly sampled CS with half of the phenotyping effort.
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Submitted on : Friday, September 12, 2014 - 5:02:08 PM
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Renaud Rincent. Optimization of association genetics and genomic selection strategies for populations of different diversity levels : Application in maize (Zea mays L.). Agricultural sciences. AgroParisTech, 2014. English. ⟨NNT : 2014AGPT0018⟩. ⟨pastel-01063720⟩

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