Compréhension et modélisation de la rupture fragile des aciers renforcés par nano-précipitation : effets de texture, de vieillissement et de composition

Abstract : The Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels have been identified as potential materials for fuel cladding in Generation IV nuclear reactors. They are characterized by a very good resistance to swelling under irradiation and to high temperature creep, but questions still remain about the impact toughness of these materials. The first aim of this work is to understand the effects of different parameters (chemical composition, texture, thermal ageing...) on the impact behaviour of ODS steels. The final objective is to predict the occurrence of the brittle failure on the ODS steel components in normal or incidental conditions.Firstly, this study assesses the stability of two ODS steel grades containing either 14%C or 18%Cr during thermal ageing. The 18%Cr steel grade has been discarded due to the growing of the brittle intermetallic sigma phase at 600°C. However, the 14%Cr steel grade showed a promising behaviour given the stability of its mechanical properties after thermal ageing between 400°C and 600°C, for a maximum duration of 10000 hours, and regardless of the presence of chromium carbides, alpha' and Laves phases. Then, the morphological texture characterized by elongated grains along the extrusion direction enhances the propagation of intergranular cracks along this direction. Meanwhile, the crystallographic texture controls the cleavage micromechanisms. Indeed, the microstructural entities that control the propagation of the cleavage crack are groups of grains which are characterized by low crystallographic misorientations and referred to as effective grains. At last, the tensile and bending behaviour of a 14%Cr ODS steel grade has been modelled. A brittle failure criterion based on a critical stress value had also been suggested. This model allowed us to simulate mechanical tests on different geometries and to predict the occurrence of the brittle failure.
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Anne-Laure Rouffié. Compréhension et modélisation de la rupture fragile des aciers renforcés par nano-précipitation : effets de texture, de vieillissement et de composition. Autre. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENMP0014⟩. ⟨pastel-01069061⟩

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