A. Aurdal, Analyse d'images IRM 3D multi-echos pour la d etection et la quantiication de pathologies c er ebrales, Ecole Nationale Sup erieure des T el ecommunications

B. Baillet and L. Garnero, A b ayesian approach to introducing anatomo-functional priors into the EEG / MEG inverse problem, I E E E T ransactions on, BME, 1996.

S. Baillet, Vers une imagerie fonctionnelle de l' electrophysiologie corticale. Mod elisation markovienne pour l'estimation des sources de l' electro/magn etoenc ephalographie et evaluations exp erimentales, T h ese de doctorat, pp.1998-5353
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pastel-00713794

. H. Ball-65-]-g, D. J. Ball, and . Hall, ISODATA, a novel method o f data analysis and pattern classiication, rapp. tech, 1965.

B. W. Belliveau, Dynamic human brain mapping using combined fMRI, EEG and MEG, dans Ecole de Formation -Approches des Fonctions Cognitives par les M ethodes de Neuroimagerie, 1997.

B. Bertrand, Topologie dans les images num eriques, 1982.

B. Bertrand and G. Malandain, A new characterization of three-dimensional simple points, P attern Recognition Letters, pp.169-175, 1994.

B. Bertrand, Simple points, topological numbers and geodesic neighbourhoods in cubic grids, P attern Recognition Letters, pp.1003-1011, 1994.

B. Bertrand and M. Couprie, Some structural properties of discrete surfaces, Proceedings of DGCI'97, pp.113-124, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/BFb0024834

B. Bomans, H. Hohne, and U. Tiede, Riemer, 3-D segmentation of MR images of the head for 3-D display, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, pp.9-177, 1990.

B. Borgefors, Distance t r ansformations in digital images, Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, pp.344-371, 1986.

B. Brodmann, Vergleichende Lokalisationslehre d e r G r oohirnrinde, 1925.

C. Caselles, R. Kimmel, and E. G. Sapiro, Geodesic active contours, I n ternational, International Journal of Computer Vision, vol.22, issue.1, pp.61-79, 1997.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1007979827043

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

C. M. Chassery, Connectivity and consecutivity in digital pictures, Computer Graphics and Image Processing, vol.9, issue.3, pp.294-300, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0146-664X(79)90043-1

C. P. Cocquerez and S. Philipp, Analyse d'images : ltrage et segmentation, 1995.

C. Cohen, Mod eles d eformables 2D et 3D : application a l a segmentation d'images m edicales, T h ese de doctorat, 1992.

C. Cohen and L. Cohen, A hybrid hyperquadric model for 2D and 3D data tting, 1994.

I. Cointepas, E. L. Bloch, and . Garnero, Cellular complexes: a tool for 3d homotopic segmentation in brain images, Proceedings 1998 International Conference on Image Processing. ICIP98 (Cat. No.98CB36269), pp.832-836, 1998.
DOI : 10.1109/ICIP.1998.727383

Y. Cointepas, D. Rapport-de-th-ese, and . Davatzikos, Using a deformable surface m o del to obtain a shape r epresentation of the cortex, I E E E T ransactions on Medical Imaging, pp.15-785, 1996.

D. Declerck, G. Subsol, J. Thirion, and E. N. Ayache, Automatic retrieval of anatomical structures in 3D medical images, 1995.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00074190

D. Derin and H. Elliot, Modeling and segmentation of noisy and textured images using Gibbs random elds, I E E E T ransactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, pp.39-55, 1987.

D. Diday, Une nouvelle m ethode de classiication automatique et de reconnaissance des formes : la m ethode des nu ees dynamiques, p.19, 1970.

D. Duyn, Y. Yang, J. Franck, V. Mattay, and E. L. Hou, Functional magnetic resonance n e u r oimaging data acquisition techniques, Neuroimage, issue.4, pp.76-83, 1996.
DOI : 10.1006/nimg.1996.0057

F. L. Fok, J. C. Chan, and R. T. Chin, Automated analysis of nerve-cell images using active contour models, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, pp.15-353, 1996.

F. Fran-con, Discrete combinatorial surfaces, Computer Vision , Graphics and Image Processing: Graphical Models and Image Processing, pp.20-26, 1995.

G. Sz-ekely, A. Kelemen, C. Brechb-uhler, and E. G. Gerig, Segmentation of 2-D and 3-D objects from MRI volume data using constrained elastic deformations of flexible Fourier contour and surface models, Medical Image Analysis, vol.1, issue.1, pp.19-34, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S1361-8415(01)80003-7

G. C. Gee, M. Reivich, and E. R. Bajcsy, Elastically deforming a three-dimensional atlas to match anatomical brain images, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol.7, issue.3, pp.225-236

G. G. Eraud, Segmentation des structures internes du cerveau en imagerie par r esonance magn etique tridimensionnelle, Th ese de doctorat, Ecole Nationale Sup erieure des T el ecommunications

G. G. Eraud and I. Bloch, Ma^ tre, Atlas-guided R ecognition of Cerebral Structures in MRI using Fusion of Fuzzy Structural Information, dans CIMAF'99 Symposium on Articial Intelligence, pp.99-106, 1999.

G. Gloor, Neuronal Generators and the Problem of Localization in Electroencephalography, Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol.2, issue.4, pp.327-354, 1985.
DOI : 10.1097/00004691-198510000-00002

G. Gordon and J. K. Udupa, Fast surface t r acking in threedimensional binary images, Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, pp.45-196, 1989.

G. L. Goualher, E. Procyk, D. L. Collins, R. Venugopal, C. Barillot et al., Automated extraction and variability analysis of sulcal neuroanatomy, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol.18, issue.3, pp.18-206, 1999.
DOI : 10.1109/42.764891

H. Haller, G. Christensen, S. Joshi, J. Newcomer, M. Miller et al., Hippocampal MR imaging morphometry by means of general pattern matching., Radiology, vol.199, issue.3, pp.199-787, 1996.
DOI : 10.1148/radiology.199.3.8638006

H. , R. Hari, R. J. Ilmoniemi, J. Knuutila, and O. V. Lounasmaa, Magnetoencephalography theory, instrumentation and applications to noinvasive studies of the working human brain, Reviews of Modern Physics, pp.65-413, 1993.

H. J. Harris, E. H. Rhew, T. Noga, and E. G. Pearison, User-friendly method for rapid brain and CSF volume calculation using transaxial MRI images, Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, vol.40, issue.1, pp.40-61, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0925-4927(91)90029-P

E. G. Schlaepfer and . Pearison, MR volume segmentation of gray matter and white matter using manual thresholding, American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.15, pp.225-230, 1994.

H. H. One and W. A. Hanson, Interactive segmentation of MRI and CT volumes using morphological operations, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol.16, pp.285-294, 1992.

H. Heinonen, H. Eskola, P. Dastidar, P. Laarne, and E. J. Malmivuo, Segmentation of T1 MR scans for reconstruction of resistive head models, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, vol.54, issue.3, pp.173-181, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-2607(97)00027-8

H. T. Herman and H. K. Liu, Dynamic boundary surface detection, Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, pp.130-138, 1978.
DOI : 10.1016/S0146-664X(78)80018-5

H. T. Herman, A topological proof of a surface t r acking algorithm, Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, pp.162-177, 1983.

H. T. Herman, On topology as applied to image analysis, Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, pp.52-409, 1990.

H. T. Herman, Discrete multidimensional Jordan surfaces, Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing: Graphical Models and Image Processing, pp.507-515, 1992.

H. H. Ohne and W. Hanson, Interactive 3-D segmentation of MRI and CT volumes using morphological operations, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol.16, pp.285-294, 1992.

J. Jezzard and A. Song, Technical Foundations and Pitfalls of Clinical fMRI, NeuroImage, vol.4, issue.3, pp.63-75, 1996.
DOI : 10.1006/nimg.1996.0056

K. Kahle, H. Leonhardt, and E. W. Platzer, Anatomie 3 - Syst eme nerveux, Flammarion-M edecine-Sciences, 1990.

K. Kapur, W. Grimson, W. Wells, and R. Kikinis, Segmentation of brain tissue from magnetic resonance images, M e dical Image Analysis, pp.109-127, 1996.

K. Kass, A. Witkin, and E. D. Terzopoulos, Snakes: Active contour models, International Journal of Computer Vision, vol.5, issue.6035, pp.321-331, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00133570

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

K. Kenmochi, A. Imiya, and E. N. Ezquerra, Polyhedra generation from lattice points, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol.1176, pp.127-138, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-62005-2_11

K. N. Kennedy, P. A. Filipek, and E. V. Caviness, Anatomic segmentation and volumetric calculations in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol.8, issue.1, pp.1-7, 1989.
DOI : 10.1109/42.20356

K. Khalimsky, On topologies of generalized s e gments, S o viet Math. Doklady, vol.10, pp.1508-1511, 1969.

K. Khalimsky, R. Koppermann, and P. R. Meyer, Computer graphics and connected topologies on nite ordered sets, Topology and its Applications, pp.36-37, 1990.

K. Y. Kong, R. Kopperman, and E. P. Meyer, A Topological Approach to Digital Topology, The American Mathematical Monthly, vol.98, issue.10, pp.901-917, 1991.
DOI : 10.2307/2324147

K. Y. Kong and J. K. Udupa, A justiication of a fast surface t r acking algorithm, Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing: Graphical Models and Image Processing, pp.54-162, 1992.

K. A. Kovalevsky, Discrete topology and contour definition, Pattern Recognition Letters, vol.2, issue.5, pp.281-288, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-8655(84)90015-1

K. A. Kovalevsky, Finite topology as applied to image analysis , Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, pp.46-141, 1989.

K. Kovalevsky, Topological foundations of shape analysis, NATO ASI Series, Series F, pp.21-36, 1994.

L. Lachaud and A. Montanvert, Deformable meshes with automated topology changes for coarse-to-fine three-dimensional surface extraction, Medical Image Analysis, vol.3, issue.2, pp.187-207, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S1361-8415(99)80006-1

L. Lebihan, P. Jezzard, J. Haxby, N. Sadato, L. Rueckert et al., Functional magnetic resonance of the brain, A n n a l s o f I n ternal Medicine, pp.122-296, 1996.

L. Liang, Dynamic elastic model for generating deformation process of 3D objects, dans SPIE, Curves and Surfaces in Computer Vision and Graphics, pp.321-332, 1992.

K. O. Lim and A. Pfefferbaum, Segmentation of MR Brain Images into Cerebrospinal Fluid Spaces, White and Gray Matter, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol.13, issue.4, pp.588-593, 1989.
DOI : 10.1097/00004728-198907000-00006

H. K. Liu, Two- and three-dimensional boundary detection, Computer Graphics and Image Processing, vol.6, issue.2, pp.123-134, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/S0146-664X(77)80008-7

A. K. Liu, A. M. Sereno, B. R. Rosen, and J. W. , Belliveau , fMRI-constrained linear estimation of cortical activity from EEG and MEG measurment : a model study, enth International Conference on Biomagnetism, 1996.

L. Latecki, Multicolor well-composed p i c t u r es, P attern Recognition Letters, pp.425-431, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-8655(94)00104-b

M. Macdonald, D. Avis, and A. C. Evans, Multiple surface identiication and matching in magnetic resonance images, dans SPIE -Visualization in, Biomedical Computing, vol.94, issue.2359, pp.160-169, 1994.

M. M. Machado and J. C. Gee, Atlas warping for brain morphometry, dans SPIE Medical Imaging, 1998.

M. Malandain, G. Bertrand, and E. N. Ayache, Topological segmentation of discrete surfaces, International Journal of Computer Vision, vol.17, issue.6, pp.183-197, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01420736

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00615557

M. Malladi, J. A. Sethian, and B. C. Vemuri, Shape modeling with front propagation: a level set approach, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol.17, issue.2, pp.158-174, 1995.
DOI : 10.1109/34.368173

M. Malladi, R. Kimmel, D. Adalsteinsson, G. Sapiro, V. Caselles et al., A g e ometric approach to segmentation and analysis of 3D medical images, Proc. MMBIA, 1996.

M. Mangin, Mise en correspondance d'images m edicales 3D multi-modalit es multi-individus pour la corr elation anatomofonctionnelle c er ebrale, T h ese de doctorat, Ecole Nationale Sup erieure des T el ecommunications

Y. Cointepas, B. Rapport-de-th-ese, ]. J. Mang-95b, V. Mangin, I. Frouin et al., From 3D magnetic resonance images to structural representations of the cortex topography using topology preserving deformations, Journal of Mathemetical Imaging and Vision, vol.5, pp.297-318, 1995.

M. Mangin, O. Coulon, and E. V. Frouin, Robust brain segmentation using histogram scale-space analysis and mathematical morphology, dans Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI'98), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.1230-1241, 1998.

M. Mcandrew and C. Osborne, Algebraic methods for multidimensional digital topology, SPIE Vision Geometry II, pp.2060-2074, 1993.

M. Mcinerney and R. Kikinis, An object-based volumetric deformable atlas for the improved l o calization of neuroanatomy in MR images, dans Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI'98), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, p.861, 1998.

M. Mittelhauber and F. Kruggel, Fast segmentation of brain magnetic resonance tomograms, dans Computer Vision, Virtual Reality, and Robotics in Medicine, pp.351-357, 1995.

M. G. Morgenthaler, Three dimensional simple points: serial erosion, parallel thinning, and skeletonization, 1981.

M. Morgenthaler and A. Rosenfeld, Surfaces in three-dimensional digital images, Information and Control, vol.51, issue.3, pp.227-247, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/S0019-9958(81)90290-4

N. L. Nunez, Electric elds of the brain, 1981.

N. L. Nunez, Localization of brain activity with electroencephalography, Advances in Neurology, vol.54, pp.39-64, 1990.

O. M. Ollinger and J. A. Fessler, Positron-emission tomography, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol.14, issue.1, pp.43-55, 1997.
DOI : 10.1109/79.560323

P. Penfield and T. Rasmussen, THE CEREBRAL CORTEX IN MAN, Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry, vol.40, issue.3, 1950.
DOI : 10.1001/archneurpsyc.1938.02270090011001

P. A. Pierre, Optimization theory with applications, 1986.

P. Pizzato, Cr eation d'un outil de visualisation tridimensionnelle pour l'imagerie c er ebrale, 1997.

R. Rajapakse, J. Giedd, and E. J. Rapoport, Statistical approach to segmentation of single-channel cerebral MR images, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol.16, issue.2, pp.176-186, 1997.
DOI : 10.1109/42.563663

R. R. Egis, J. F. Mangin, V. Frouin, F. Sastre, J. Peragut et al., Generic model for the localization of the cerebral cortex and preoperative multimodal integration in epilepsy surgery, Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, vol.6, pp.5-72, 1995.

R. Renault and L. Garnero, L'imagerie electromagn etique c er ebrale, principe d e b ase et perspectives, Colloque de l'Acad emie des Sciences : Instrumentation physique en biologie et en m edecine, pp.131-139, 1994.

H. Rifai, I. Bloch, J. Wiart, and L. Garnero, Dormont , Segmentation, suivi, mod elisation 3D et recalage de l'oreille interne a p artir de donn ees IRM, pp.71-80, 1998.

R. Rifai, I. Bloch, S. Hutchinson, J. Wiart, and E. L. Garnero, Segmentation of the skull in MRI volumes using deformable model and taking the partial volume eeect into account, Medical Image Analysis, 1998.

R. Rifai, Mod elisation r ealiste de la t^ ete a p artir d'IRM, pour l' etude des interactions des champs electromagn etiques avec l e s tissus biologiques, 1999.

R. Rizzolatti, G. Luppino, and E. M. Matteli, The organization of the cortical motor system: new concepts, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol.106, issue.4, pp.283-296, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0013-4694(98)00022-4

R. Roland, S. Geyer, K. Amunts, T. Schorman, A. Schleicher et al., Cytoarchitectural maps of the human brain in standard anatomical space, Human Brain Mapping, vol.5, issue.4, pp.222-227, 1997.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1997)5:4<222::AID-HBM3>3.0.CO;2-5

R. Rosenfeld, Digital Topology, The American Mathematical Monthly, vol.86, issue.8, pp.621-630, 1979.
DOI : 10.2307/2321290

R. Royackkers, M. Desvignes, and E. M. Revenu, Une m ethode g en erale de reconnaissance d e c ourbes 3D : application a l'identiication de sillons corticaux en imagerie par r esonance magn etique, T raitement du Signal, pp.15-365, 1998.

S. K. Saha, B. Chanda, and D. D. Majumder, Principles and algorithms for 2-D and 3-D shrinking, 1991.

S. Sandor and R. Leahy, Surface-based labeling of cortical anatomy using a deformable atlas, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol.16, issue.1, pp.41-54, 1997.
DOI : 10.1109/42.552054

S. A. Sethian, Level set methods: evolving interfaces in geometry , uid mechanics, computer vision and material science, 1996.

S. Staib and J. Duncan, Deformable Fourier models for surface nding in 3D images, dans Visualization in Biomedical Computing, pp.90-104, 1992.

S. Steinmetz, G. , and H. J. Freund, Cerebral Cortical Localization, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol.13, issue.1, pp.13-23, 1989.
DOI : 10.1097/00004728-198901000-00003

S. Steinmetz, G. , and H. J. Freund, Variation of perisylvanian and calcarine anatomic landmarks within stereotaxic proportional coordinates, American Journal of Neuroradiology, pp.13-1123, 1990.

S. Sullivan, L. Sandford, and E. J. Ponce, Using geometric distance fits for 3-D object modeling and recognition, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol.16, issue.12, pp.1183-1196, 1994.
DOI : 10.1109/34.387489

S. Suzuki and J. Toriwaki, Automatic segmentation of head MRI images by knowledge guided t h r esholding, Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, pp.233-240, 1991.

T. Teo, G. Sapiro, and E. B. Wandell, Creating connected representations of cortical gray matter for functional MRI visualization , I E E E T ransactions on Medical Imaging, pp.16-852, 1997.

T. Terzopoulos and K. Fleischer, Deformable models, The Visual Computer, pp.306-331, 1988.

T. I. Toriwaki, S. Yokoi, T. Yonekura, and E. T. Fukumura, Topological properties and topology-preserving transformation of a three-dimensional binary picture, d a n s 6 t h I n ternational Conference on Pattern Recognition, pp.414-419, 1989.

T. F. Tsao-e-t and K. S. , A p arallel thinning algorithm for 3- D pictures, Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, pp.315-331, 1981.

R. Turner and P. Jezzard, Magnetic resonnance studies of brain functional activation using echo-planar imaging, d a n s Functionnal Neuroimaging: Technical Foundations, pp.69-78, 1994.

U. K. Udupa, Multidimensional digital boundaries, Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing: Graphical Models and Image Processing, pp.56-311, 1993.

V. Vandermeulen, R. Verbeeck, L. Berben, P. Suetens, and E. G. Marchal, Continuous voxel classiication by stochastic relaxation: Theory and application to MR angiography, Image and Vision Computing, pp.12-559, 1994.

V. Villringer and U. Dirnagl, Coupling of brain activity and cerebral blood ow -physiological basis of functionnal neuroimaging techniques, Cerebrovasc, Brain Metab. Rev, vol.7, pp.240-276, 1995.

V. Voss, Discrete images, objects and functions in Z n , v ol. 11 of Algorithms and Combinatorics, 1993.

M. Wagner, M. Fuchs, H. Wischmann, K. Ottenberg, and O. , Cortex segmentation from 3D MR images for MEG reconstruction, Biomagnetism: Fundamental Research and Clinical Applications, pp.433-438, 1995.

W. Welte, R. Kolb, M. Skalej, U. Klose, and F. N. Usslin, Segmentation of brain structures from MR data using texture f e atures, dans DGMP, Medizinische Physik 95, 1995.

W. A. Wright, Magnetic resonance imaging, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol.14, issue.1, pp.56-66, 1997.
DOI : 10.1109/79.560324

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00615582

D. L. Xu and L. Prince, Finding the brain cortex using fuzzy segmentation, isosurfaces and deformable surface m o dels, XVth International Conference Information Processing in Medical Imaging (IPMI'97, pp.399-404, 1997.

C. Xu, D. Pham, J. Prince, M. Etemad, and E. D. Yu, Reconstruction of the central layer of the human cerebral cortex from MR images, dans Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention -MICCAI'98, pp.481-488, 1998.

Z. Zeng, L. Staib, R. Schult, and E. J. Duncan, Segmentation and measurement of the cortex from 3D MR images, dans Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention -MICCAI'98, pp.519-530, 1998.

. Lien-entre-la-forme-d, une surface et le maximum du rapport entre la distance euclidienne et la distance g eod esique, p.157