M. Aitkin, D. Anderson, B. Francis, and J. Et-hinde, Statistical modelling in GLM, 1989.

H. Akaike, A new look at the statistical model identification, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol.19, issue.6, pp.716-723, 1974.
DOI : 10.1109/TAC.1974.1100705

L. Andersson, C. S. Haley, H. Ellegren, S. A. Knott, M. Johansson et al., Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for growth and fatness in pigs, Science, vol.263, issue.5154, pp.1771-1774, 1994.
DOI : 10.1126/science.8134840

F. Barillet, D. Boichard, J. M. Astruc, and B. Et-bonaati, Validation of estimated genetic trend in French Lacaune dairy sheep evaluation. 300me session d'ICAR, pp.23-28, 1996.

J. P. Bidanel, D. Milan, N. Iannuccelli, Y. Amigues, M. Y. Boscher et al., Detection of quantitative trait loci for growth and fatness in pigs, Genetics Selection Evolution, vol.33, issue.3, pp.289-309, 2001.
DOI : 10.1186/1297-9686-33-3-289

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00894376

J. P. Bidanel and M. E-t-r-o-t-s-c-hild, Current s t a t u s o f q u a n titative trait locus mapping in pigs, Pig News & Information, vol.23, pp.39-53, 2002.

J. P. Bidanel, D. Milan, C. Renard, J. Gruand, and J. Mourot, Detection of quantitative trait loci for intramuscular fat content and lipogenic enzyme activities in Meishan x Large White F2 pigs, Proceedings of the 7th World Congress Applied to Livestock Production. CD ROM communication, pp.3-13, 2002.

B. Bost, D. De-vienne, F. Hospital, L. Moreau, and C. Et-dillmann, Genetic and nongenetic bases for the L-shaped distribution of quantitative trait loci eeects, Genetics, vol.157, pp.1773-1787, 2001.

O. Carlborg, L. Andersson, and B. Et-kinghorn, The use of a genetic algorithm for simultaneous mapping of multiple interacting quantitative trait loci, Genetics, vol.155, pp.2003-2010, 2000.

G. A. Churchill and R. W. Et-doerge, Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping, Genetics, vol.138, pp.963-971, 1994.

A. Darvasi, A. Weinreb, V. Minke, J. I. Weller, and M. Et-soller, Detecting marker- QTL linkage and estimating QTL gene eeect and map location using a saturated genetic map, Genetics, vol.134, pp.943-951, 1993.

R. B. Davies, Hypothesis testing when a nuisance parameter is present only under the alternative, Biometrika, vol.64, issue.2, pp.247-254, 1977.
DOI : 10.1093/biomet/64.2.247

R. B. Davies, Hypothesis testing when nuisance parameter is present only under the alternative h ypothese, Biometrika, vol.74, pp.33-43, 1987.

M. H. Dizier, C. Bonaiti-pellie, and F. Et-clerget-darpoux, Conclusions of segregation analysis for family data generated under two-locus models, Am J Hum Genet, vol.53, pp.1338-1346, 1993.

R. W. Doerge and G. A. Churchill, Permutation tests for multiple loci aaecting a quantitative c haracter, Genetics, vol.142, pp.285-294, 1996.

J. M. Elsen and P. Et-le-roy, Optimal design for the detection of a major gene segregation in crosses between 2 pure lines, Genetics Selection Evolution, vol.27, issue.3, pp.275-285, 1995.
DOI : 10.1186/1297-9686-27-3-275

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00489756

J. M. Elsen and P. Et-le-roy, Recherche d'un marqueur ggnntique d'un gene eet majeur. SSminaire : Planiication exprimentale en ggnntique animale, Saint-Martin-de- RR, p.2, 1996.

J. M. Elsen, B. Mangin, B. Goonet, D. Boichard, and P. Et-le-roy, Alternative models for QTL detection in livestock. I. General introduction, Genetics Selection Evolution, vol.31, issue.3, pp.31-213, 1999.
DOI : 10.1186/1297-9686-31-3-213

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00199719

D. S. Falconer, Introduction to quantitative genetics, 1989.

F. Farnir, W. Coppieters, J. J. Arranz, P. Berzi, N. Cambisano et al., Extensive Genome-wide Linkage Disequilibrium in Cattle, Genome Research, vol.10, issue.2, pp.220-227, 2000.
DOI : 10.1101/gr.10.2.220

M. Georges and L. Et-andersson, Livestock genomics comes of age., Genome Research, vol.6, issue.10, pp.907-921, 1996.
DOI : 10.1101/gr.6.10.907

M. Georges, D. Nielsen, M. Mackinnon, A. Mishra, R. Okimoto et al., Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing, Genetics, vol.139, pp.907-920, 1995.

B. Goonet and B. Et-mangin, Comparing methods to detect more than one QTL on a chromosome, Theor Appl Genet, vol.96, pp.628-633, 1998.

B. Goonet, L. Roy, P. Boichard, D. Elsen, J. M. Et-mangin et al., Alternative models for QTL detection in livestock. III. Heteroskedastic model and models corresponding to several distributions of the QTL eeects, Genet Sel Evol, pp.31-341, 1999.

J. B. Haldane, The combination of linkage values, and the calculation of distance between the loci of linked factors, J Genet, vol.8, pp.299-309, 1919.

C. S. Haley and S. A. Knott, A simple regression method for mapping quantitative trait loci in line crosses using flanking markers, Heredity, vol.69, issue.4, pp.315-324, 1992.
DOI : 10.1038/hdy.1992.131

C. S. Haley, S. A. Knott, and J. M. Et-elsen, Mapping quantitative trait loci in crosses between outbred lines using least squares, Genetics, vol.136, pp.1195-1207, 1994.

F. E. Harrel and C. E. Davis, A new distribution-free quantile estimator, Biometrika, vol.69, issue.3, pp.635-640, 1982.
DOI : 10.1093/biomet/69.3.635

B. Hayes and M. E. Goddard, The distribution of the effects of genes affecting quantitative traits in livestock, Genetics Selection Evolution, vol.33, issue.3, pp.209-229, 2001.
DOI : 10.1186/1297-9686-33-3-209

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00894372

J. M. Henshall and M. E. Goddard, Multiple-trait mapping of quantitative trait loci after selective genotyping using logistic regression, Genetics, vol.151, pp.885-894, 1999.

I. Hoeschele, P. Uimari, F. E. Grignola, Q. Zhang, and K. M. Et-gage, Advances in statistical methods to map quantitative trait loci in outbred populations, Genetics, vol.147, pp.1445-1457, 1997.

R. C. Jansen, A general mixture model for mapping quantitative trait loci by using molecular markers, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol.85, issue.2-3, pp.252-260, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00222867

R. C. Jansen, Interval mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci, Genetics, pp.205-211, 1993.

R. C. Jansen and P. Et-stam, High resolution of quantitative traits into multiple loci via interval mapping, Genetics, vol.136, pp.1447-1455, 1994.

R. C. Jansen, Controlling the type I and type II errors in mapping quantitative trait loci, Genetics, vol.138, pp.871-881, 1994.

R. C. Jansen, A general Monte Carlo method for mapping multiple quantitative trait loci, Genetics, vol.142, pp.305-311, 1996.

R. C. Jansen, D. L. Johnson, and J. A. Et-van-arendonk, A mixture model approach to the mapping of quantitative trait loci in complex populations with an application to multiple cattle families, Genetics, vol.148, pp.391-399, 1998.

C. Jiang and Z. B. Et-zeng, Multiple trait analysis of genetic mapping for quantitative trait loci, Genetics, vol.140, pp.1111-1127, 1995.

C. H. Kao, Z. B. Zeng, and R. D. Et-teasdale, Multiple interval mapping for quantitative trait loci, Genetics, vol.152, pp.1203-1216, 1999.

C. H. Kao, On the diierences between maximum likelihood and regression interval mapping in the analysis of quantitative trait loci, Genetics, vol.156, pp.855-865, 2000.

M. Kendall and A. Stuart, The advanced t h e ory of statistics, 1979.

S. J. Knapp, W. Bridges, and D. Et-birked, Mapping quantitative trait loci using molecular marker linkage maps, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol.79, issue.5, pp.583-592, 1990.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00226869

S. J. Knapp, Using molecular marke r s t o m a p m ultiple quantitative trait loci : models for backcross, recombinant i n bred, and doubled haploid progeny, Theor Appl Genet, vol.8, issue.1, pp.333-338, 1991.

M. Knapp, Alternative test for linkage between two l o c i, Genet Epidemiol, vol.1, issue.5, p.511, 1998.

M. Knapp, A Note on Power Approximations for the Transmission/Disequilibrium Test, The American Journal of Human Genetics, vol.64, issue.4, pp.1177-1185, 1999.
DOI : 10.1086/302334

S. A. Knott and C. S. Haley, Maximum likelihood mapping of quantitative trait loci using full-sib families, Genetics, vol.132, pp.1211-1222, 1992.

S. A. Knott, C. S. Haley, and R. Et-thompson, Methods of segregation analysis for animal breeding data: a comparison of power, Heredity, vol.68, issue.4, pp.299-311, 1992.
DOI : 10.1038/hdy.1992.44

S. A. Knott, C. S. Haley, and R. Et-thompson, Methods of segregation analysis for animal breeding data: parameter estimates, Heredity, vol.68, issue.4, pp.313-320, 1992.
DOI : 10.1038/hdy.1992.45

S. A. Knott, J. M. Elsen, and C. S. Haley, Methods for multiple-marker mapping of quantitative trait loci in half-sib populations, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol.93, issue.1-2, pp.71-80, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00225729

S. A. Knott, L. Marklund, C. S. Haley, K. Andersson, W. Davies et al., Multiple marker mapping of quantitative trait loci in a cross between outbred wild boar and large white pigs, Genetics, vol.149, pp.1069-1080, 1998.

S. A. Knott and C. S. Haley, Multitrait least squares for quantitative trait loci detection, Genetics, vol.156, pp.899-911, 2000.

S. A. Knott, P. E. Nystrom, L. Andersson-eklund, S. Stern, L. Marklund et al., Approaches to interval mapping of QTL in a multigeneration pedigree: the example of porcine chromosome 4, Animal Genetics, vol.155, issue.1, pp.26-32, 2002.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2052.1998.296360.x

D. J. De-koning, P. M. Visscher, S. A. Knott, and C. S. Haley, Abstract, Animal Science, vol.87, issue.02, pp.257-268, 1998.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2052.1994.tb00202.x

D. J. De-koning, N. F. Schulmant, K. Elo, S. Moisio, R. Kinos et al., Mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci by simple regression in half-sib designs., Journal of Animal Science, vol.79, issue.3, pp.616-622, 2001.
DOI : 10.2527/2001.793616x

A. B. Korol, Y. I. Ronin, and V. M. Et-kirzhner, Interval mapping of quantitative trait loci employing correlated trait complexes, Genetics, vol.140, pp.1137-1147, 1995.

A. B. Korol, Y. I. Ronin, and E. Et-nevo, Approximate analysis of QTL-environment interaction with no limits on the number of environments, Genetics, vol.148, pp.2015-2028, 1998.

A. B. Korol, Y. I. Ronin, A. M. Itskovich, J. Peng, and E. Et-nevo, Enhanced eeciency of quantitative trait loci mapping analysis based on multivariate complexes of quantitative traits, Genetics, vol.157, pp.1789-1803, 2001.

D. D. Kosambi, The estimation of map distance from recombination distributions, Proc N a t l A cad Sci, pp.75-6332, 1944.

E. S. Lander and L. Et-kruglyak, Genetic dissection of complex traits: guidelines for interpreting and reporting linkage results, Nature Genetics, vol.265, issue.3, pp.241-247, 1995.
DOI : 10.1038/ng0694supp-246

E. S. Lander and D. Et-botstein, Mapping mendelian factors underlying quantitative traits using RFLP linkage maps, Genetics, vol.121, pp.185-199, 1989.

M. R. Leadbetter, G. Lindgren, and H. Et-rootzen, Extremes and related p r operties of random sequences and processes, 1983.

C. M. Lebreton and P. M. Et-visscher, Empirical nonparametric bootstrap strategies in quantitative trait loci mapping: conditioning on the genetic model, Genetics, vol.1, issue.8, pp.525-535, 1998.

C. M. Lebreton, P. M. Visscher, C. S. Haley, A. Semikhodskii, and S. A. Et-quarrie, A nonparametric bootstrap method for testing close linkage vs. pleiotropy of coincident quantitative trait loci, Genetics, vol.150, pp.931-943, 1998.

E. C. Lehman, Testing Statistical Hypotheses, 1986.

L. Roy, P. Elsen, J. M. Et-knott, and S. A. , Comparison of four statistical methods for detection of a major gene in a progeny test design, Genetics Selection Evolution, vol.21, issue.3, pp.341-357, 1989.
DOI : 10.1186/1297-9686-21-3-341

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00893807

L. Roy, P. Et-elsen, and J. M. , Simple test statistics for major gene detection: a numerical comparison, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol.83, issue.5, pp.635-644, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00226909

L. Roy, P. Elsen, J. M. Boichard, D. Mangin, B. Bidanel et al., 11-16 janvier 1998. An algorithm for QTL detection in mixture of full and half sib families, 6iime World Congress of Genetic Applied to Livestock Production, pp.257-260

E. Lipkin, M. O. Mosig, A. Darvasi, E. Ezra, A. Shalom et al., Quantitative trait locus mapping in dairy cattle by means of selective milk DNA pooling using dinucleotide microsatellite markers: analysis of milk protein percentage, Genetics, vol.149, pp.1557-1567, 1998.

Z. Liu and J. C. Et-dekkers, Least squares interval mapping of quantitative trait loci under the innnitesimal genetic model in outbred populations, Genetics, vol.148, pp.495-505, 1998.

Z. W. Luo and M. J. Et-kearsey, Interval mapping of quantitative trait loci in an F2 population, Heredity, vol.69, issue.3, pp.236-242, 1992.
DOI : 10.1038/hdy.1992.121

E. Manfredi, M. Barbieri, F. Fournet, and J. M. Et-elsen, A dynamic deterministic model to evaluate breeding strategies under mixed inheritance, Genetics Selection Evolution, vol.30, issue.2, pp.2-7, 1998.
DOI : 10.1186/1297-9686-30-2-127

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00894200

B. Mangin and B. Et-goonet, Statistical testing in genetic linkage under heterogeneity, Biometrics, vol.50, p.308, 1994.

B. Mangin, B. Goonet, and A. Et-rebai, Constructing conndence intervals for QTL location, Genetics, vol.138, pp.1301-1308, 1994.

B. Mangin, B. Goonet, L. Roy, P. Boichard, D. Et-elsen et al., Alternative models for QTL detection in livestock. II. Likelihood approximations and sire marker genotype estimations, Genetics Selection Evolution, vol.31, issue.3, pp.31-225, 1999.
DOI : 10.1186/1297-9686-31-3-225

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00199719

B. Mangin, P. Thoquet, J. Olivier, and N. H. Et-grimsley, Temporal and multiple quantitative trait loci analyses of resistance to bacterial wilt in tomato permit the resolution of linked loci, Genetics, vol.151, pp.1165-1172, 1999.

K. V. Mardia, J. T. Kent, and J. M. Et-bibby, Multivariate analysis, Discriminant Analysis, pp.300-332, 1979.

O. Marttnez and R. N. Et-curnow, Estimating the locations and the sizes of the eeects of quantitative trait loci using anking markers, Theor Appl Genet, vol.85, pp.480-488, 1992.

D. Milan, J. P. Bidanel, N. Iannuccelli, J. Riquet, Y. Amigues et al., Detection of quantitative trait loci for carcass composition traits in pigs, Genetics Selection Evolution, vol.34, issue.6, pp.705-728, 2002.
DOI : 10.1186/1297-9686-34-6-705

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00894278

R. Nakamichi, Y. Ukai, and H. Et-kishino, Detection of closely linked multiple quantitative trait loci using a genetic algorithm, Genetics, vol.158, pp.463-475, 2001.

L. Ollivier, Ellments de GGnntique Quantitative, 1981.

J. W. Van-ooijen, Accuracy of mapping quantitative trait loci in autogamous species, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol.84, issue.7-8, pp.803-811, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00227388

A. A. Pazsek, P. J. Wilkie, G. H. Flickinger, G. A. Rohrer, L. J. Alexander et al., Interval mapping of growth in divergent swine cross, Mamm Genom, vol.10, pp.117-122, 1999.

A. H. Paterson, S. Damon, J. D. Hewitt, D. Zamir, H. D. Rabinowitch et al., Mendelian factors underlying quantitative traits in tomato: comparison across species, generations, and environments, Genetics, pp.1-2, 1991.

L. R. Piper and B. M. Et-bindon, The Booroola gene, F e c B , i n A ustralia, 2iime congrrs international Major genes for reproduction in sheep, pp.43-45, 1990.

L. R. Piper and B. M. Et-bindon, Strategies for utilization of a major gene for proliicacy in sheep., 2iime congrrs international Major genes for reproduction in sheep, pp.399-408, 1990.

A. Rebai, B. Goonet, and B. Et-mangin, Approximate thresholds of interval mapping tests for QTL detection, Genetics, vol.138, pp.235-240, 1994.

A. Rebai, B. Goonet, and B. Et-mangin, Comparing power of diierent methods for QTL detection, Biometrics, vol.5, issue.1, pp.7-9, 1995.

F. Rodolphe and M. Et-lefort, A multi-marker model for detecting chromosomal segments displaying QTL activity, Genetics, vol.134, pp.1277-1288, 1993.

Y. I. Ronin, V. M. Kirzhner, and A. B. Et-korol, Linkage betwe e n l o c i o f q u a n titative traits and marker loci : multitrait analysis with a single marker, Theor Appl Genet, vol.90, pp.776-786, 1995.

Y. I. Ronin, A. B. Korol, and E. Et-nevo, Single-and multiple-trait mapping analysis of linked quantitative trait loci. Some asymptotic analytical approximations, Genetics, vol.151, pp.387-396, 1999.

Y. Sakamoto, M. Ishiguro, and G. Et-kitagawa, Akaike Information Criterion, 1986.

R. L. Schmoyer, Permutation Tests for Correlation in Regression Errors, Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol.57, issue.428, pp.1507-1516, 1994.
DOI : 10.1214/aoms/1177731207

P. Sellier, Genetics of meat and carcass traits, The genetics of the pigs, pp.463-510, 1998.

M. Soller, T. Brody, and A. Et-genizi, On the power of experimental designs for the detection of linkage between marker loci and quantitative l o c i i n c r o s s e b e t ween inbred lines, Theor Appl Genet, pp.47-82, 1976.

M. Soller and A. Et-genizy, The Efficiency of Experimental Designs for the Detection of Linkage between a Marker Locus and a Locus Affecting a Quantitative Trait in Segregating Populations, Biometrics, vol.34, issue.1, pp.47-55, 1978.
DOI : 10.2307/2529587

R. J. Spelman, W. Coppieters, L. Karim, J. A. Van-arendonk, and H. Et-bovenhuis, Quantitative trait loci analysis for ve milk production traits on chromosome six in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian population, Genetics, vol.144, pp.1799-808, 1996.

S. D. Tanksley, H. Medina-filho, and C. M. Et-rick, Use of naturally-occuring enzyme variation to detect and map genes controlling quantitative traits in an interspeciic backcross of tomato, Heredity, pp.49-60, 1982.

H. J. Vilkki, D. J. De-koning, and K. Elo, Multiple Marker Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci of Finnish Dairy Cattle by Regression, Journal of Dairy Science, vol.80, issue.1, pp.198-204, 1997.
DOI : 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)75928-9

P. Visscher and C. E-y, True and false positive peaks in genomewide scans: The long and the short of it, Genetic Epidemiology, vol.61, issue.4, pp.409-423, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/gepi.1010

P. M. Visscher, C. S. Haley, and R. Et-thompson, Marker-assisted introgression in backcross breeding programs, Genetics, vol.144, pp.1923-1932, 1996.

G. A. Walling, A. L. Archibald, J. A. Cattermole, A. C. Downing, H. A. Finlayson et al., Mapping of quantitative trait loci on porcine chromosome 4, Animal Genetics, vol.29, issue.6, pp.415-424, 1998.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2052.1998.296360.x

J. I. Weller, Y. Kashi, and M. Et-soller, Power of Daughter and Granddaughter Designs for Determining Linkage Between Marker Loci and Quantitative Trait Loci in Dairy Cattle, Journal of Dairy Science, vol.73, issue.9, pp.2525-2537, 1990.
DOI : 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78938-2

J. I. Weller, G. R. Wiggans, P. M. Vanraden, and M. Et-ron, Application of a canonical transformation to detection of quantitative trait loci with the aid of genetic markers in a multi-trait experiment, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol.92, issue.8, pp.998-1002, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00224040

J. I. Weller, J. Z. Song, Y. I. Ronin, and A. B. Et-korol, Designs and solutions to multiple trait comparisons, Animal Biotechnology, vol.21, issue.1, pp.107-122, 1997.
DOI : 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78938-2

J. I. Weller, J. Z. Song, D. W. Heyen, H. A. Lewin, and M. Et-ron, A new approach t o the problem of multiple comparisons in the genetic dissection of complex traits, Genetics, vol.150, pp.1699-1706, 1998.

J. C. Whittaker, R. Thompson, and P. M. Et-visscher, On the mapping of QTL by regression of phenotype on marker-type, Heredity, vol.77, issue.1, pp.77-100, 1996.
DOI : 10.1038/hdy.1996.104

S. Wright, Evolution and the genetics of populations, v ol 1, Genetic and Biometric Foundations, 1968.

W. R. Wu and W. M. Li, A new approach for mappping quantitative trait loci using complete genetic marker linkage maps, Theor Appl Genet, vol.89, pp.535-539, 1994.

W. R. Wu, W. M. Li, D. Z. Tang, H. R. Lu, and A. J. Et-worland, Time-related mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying tiller number in rice, Genetics, vol.151, pp.297-303, 1999.

Z. B. Zeng, Theoretical basis for separation of multiple linked gene effects in mapping quantitative trait loci., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.90, issue.23, pp.10972-10976, 1993.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.90.23.10972

Z. B. Zeng, Precision mapping of quantitative trait loci, Genetics, vol.136, pp.1457-1468, 1994.

Z. B. Zeng, C. H. Kao, and C. J. Et-basten, Estimating the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, Genetical Research, vol.74, issue.3, pp.279-289, 1999.
DOI : 10.1017/S0016672399004255

. Puissances, SCE des estimations des positions et SCE des estimations des eeets QTL des mthodes multicaracttres en fonction de la densitt en marqueurs ggnntiques et du nombre de descendants par femelle (ndm), p.71

. Analyses-en-composantes-principales, :, p.88