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Étude expérimentale de la loi d'écoulement de matériaux anisotropes transverses

Abstract : Anisotropy is a mechanical characteristic of soil behaviour; this characteristic is widely admitted in case of overconsolidated or layer deposited soils. This feature is generally overlooked in projects and ignored in laboratory studies. The assumption of isotropic behavior of soils is widely used in practice in order to simplify calculations and ease of design of geotechnical structures. Use of isotropic behavior laws for anisotropic material or not taking account of anisotropy in the calculations result in poor assessment of structures stability. An approach for observe and underscore the anisotropy has been implemented during this work to identify the influence of this phenomenon. We studied for this purpose two main types of soil anisotropy:
- induced anisotropy, case of "homogeneous" soil with anisotropic behavior due to historical loads,
- inherent anisotropy, case of soil with structural anisotropy. We followed an experimental program based on a laboratory study of soil samples that were not reconstituted to simulate a natural soil accurately but to have a marked anisotropy so that we can observe unequivocal. We just wanted to create a behavior of reference for anisotropic soil and study their anisotropic behavior. The works of this thesis consist of studying in laboratory the behaviour of two types of anisotropy (inherent and induced) of soils under various loads in order to characterize:
- the variation of the elasticity parameters of soils according to type of load at small strains,
- the evolution of elastic domain from small to high strains level,
- the apparition of plastic deformations and the yield surface,
- the experimental flow rules. Obtained results showed that the transverse anisotropy influence significantly on the behaviour of soil near the civil engineering works such as diaphragm wall, deep foundations or tunnels. The perspective of this experimental work is to improve constitutive models for soils in numerical modelling tools such as finite element method used for design of civil engineering works.
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Thanh Loc Nguyen. Étude expérimentale de la loi d'écoulement de matériaux anisotropes transverses. Sciences de l'ingénieur [physics]. Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, 2008. Français. ⟨tel-00353442⟩

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