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Erosion et dispersion des sols argileux par un fluide

Abstract : The embankment component of linear infrastructure of transport can be submitted to exceptional climatic events generating a rise in water level. The passage of a flood is normally the cause of lateral erosion due to current affecting primarily the slope of embankments. We focus here especially on the consequences of the hydraulic load imposed on the embankment and also the overflow when the water level is beyond the crest, causing a gradual rupture induced by superficial or internal erosion. This study presents the characterization of the erosion and the dispersion of clayed soils. Firstly, the soil erosion has been studied by the Jet erosion test of LCPC. This type of test is used to characterize the susceptibility to erosion of different soil textures in both the laboratory and the field. Secondly, the study of the erosion phenomenon was conducted with the Hole Erosion Test, designed and developed at LCPC. For a variety of soil textures, the rate of erosion and critical shear stress at the soil-fluid interface is evaluated by using a semiempirical erosion law. This experimental study was supplemented by observations of the surface before and after erosion with an environmental scanning electron microscopy. Thirdly, the dispersion of soil has been studied by the crumb test. Improving the ASTM standard test in which the results are mainly qualitative allows us access to quantitative measurements. The zeta potential taken with zetameter is a complementary measure in the description of the dispersion. Finally, the comparison of different tests of erosion and dispersion was discussed, similar trends observed allow us to understand the erosion in a global comprehension.
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 15, 2009 - 3:42:11 PM
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Tuan Long Pham. Erosion et dispersion des sols argileux par un fluide. Sciences de l'ingénieur [physics]. Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, 2008. Français. ⟨tel-00353451⟩

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