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Essais d'économie appliquée sur l'éducation, l'information et les salaires

Abstract : This work contains three essays in Microeconometrics of Education. In the first chapter we estimate peer effects and teacher effects in a French university. Random assignment is tested and is not rejected. Teacher effects are significative and the weakest students benefit from the presence of the best students in their group, which is not detrimental for the latter. These results are robust. Consequently, the optimal policy is to mix students, and we show that segmenting students by level would imply a substantial fall of the weakest students average results.
In the second chapter we study the impact of imperfect information on educational choices using an educational choice dynamic structural model. We discard the idea that individuals know perfectly their own characteristics on the labor market when they make their decision. We suppose that they build their initial a priori in accordance with their observed ability in school. Then these beliefs are updated in a bayesian way each time the individual observes a wage. We show that around 20% of individuals would educate differently with perfect information, but generally only one year more or one year less. In the third chapter, we introduce unobserved heterogeneity in earnings mobility by modelling earnings quintiles dynamics with a dynamic multinomial logit with unobserved heterogeneity. The semi-parametric estimation shows a segmentation of earnings quintiles distribution, very correlated with individuals education. Conditional transition matrices asymmetry leads to reject earnings dynamics modelisations that use standard gaussian ARMA processes. Moreover we confirm that the reduction in long term earnings inequality due to earnings mobility is almost totally driven by a reduction in within-group inequality. Also, we find a more important reduction of within-group inequality than previously estimated with observed heterogeneity.
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Submitted on : Friday, February 27, 2009 - 11:18:59 AM
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Thibault Brodaty. Essais d'économie appliquée sur l'éducation, l'information et les salaires. Economies et finances. ENSAE ParisTech, 2008. Français. ⟨tel-00364772⟩

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