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Influence de la matière organique dissoute sur la spéciation et la biodisponibilité des métaux : cas de la Seine, un milieu sous forte pression urbaine

Abstract : This thesis was carried out on the framework of the ANR BIOMET research project (JC05_59809). The main objectives were to improve the current knowledge on the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on metal speciation and bioavailability in urban aquatic system. The understanding of the influence of DOM on trace metal speciation and bioavailability required that the chemical composition of DOM, more exactly its binding sites should be well understood. Therefore, one part of this research focused on the isolation and characterization of DOM. The characterization of DOM, with a multidimensional approach was realized with a lot of various techniques (such as elemental, isotopic, functional and molecular) that were of prime importance to better understand the influence of DOM on trace metal speciation and bioavailability. To accomplish these objectives, the techniques such as potentiometry with ionic selective electrode and the recent electroanalytical technique AGNES and bioassays such as a bioaccumulation test (Fontinalis antipyretica) and an acute toxicity test (Daphnia magna) were performed in order to: - study the copper and lead binding by isolated DOM fractions in order to give some binding parameters of hydrophilic DOM and to better predict the fate of the trace metal. - evaluate the protective role of urban DOM on copper bioavailability. Results showed some particular characteristics of DOM from wastewater effluent such as a high proportion of hydrophilic DOM, i.e. a low hydrophobicity and a low degree of aromaticity underlying the low refractory character of urban DOM. Nevertheless a higher content of various functional groups was determined in urban DOM than in natural DOM. A very high content of proteinaceous structures was particularly identified in urban DOM. Binding experiments revealed for the first time on urban hydrophilic DOM, a higher content of binding sites than in natural DOM and these sites are strongly correlated to amino groups. The values of binding constant seem to not vary according to the nature of the fraction or the origin. The different approaches used to evaluate copper bioavailability depicted a protective role of DOM to the organisms Daphnia magna and Fontinalis antipyretica. Nevertheless this protective effect is hardly explained by the free ion concentration due to a bioavailability of some organic complexes. This feature could be explain with the high content of proteinaceous structures in these DOM fractions, since proteins are well know to play an important role in the transport mechanisms of trace metals into the organisms. Moreover, the DGT device (diffusive gradient in thin films) shows a good efficiency to assess the bioavailable copper
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Benoît Pernet-Coudrier. Influence de la matière organique dissoute sur la spéciation et la biodisponibilité des métaux : cas de la Seine, un milieu sous forte pression urbaine. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris-Est, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008PEST0063⟩. ⟨tel-00366692v2⟩



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