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Etude du comportement à la rupture d'un matériau fragile précontraint : le verre trempé

Abstract : The aim of this work is to study the fracture behavior of a prestressed material, the tempered glass, and predict its load-carrying capacity. The knowledge of tridimensional stress state is indispensable. In the case of glass building structures, elements are loaded in their plane. The edge prestress level must be determined. Simulation of tempering with the finite elements code MARC allows the calculation of transient and residual stresses. Glass is a viscoelastic material whose behavior varies with temperature. Glass is brittle. Its resistance depends on its surface state, on flaws of the structure. A statistical analysis allows a link between the failure probability and the applied stress, to take into account both the scale effect and the stress distribution. Four-point bending experimentations with annealed glass small specimens give statistical characteristics corresponding to the Weibull's theory. The loading rate effect is shown and taken into account in the modeling. It is due to the subcritical crack growth of preexisting flaws during loading because of chemical reaction between glass and environmental water vapor. Four-point bending tests on large annealed glass beams validate the statistical relation for the prediction of volume effect in glass. With computational and experimental results (statistical characteristics of glass failure), the prediction of large tempered glass beams strengths is possible. This prediction is consistent with results of experiments on large annealed and tempered glass beams. Long-term four-point bending tests on annealed and tempered glass beams are scheduled to study the evolution of annealed and tempered glass resistance under constant loading.
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Hélène Carré. Etude du comportement à la rupture d'un matériau fragile précontraint : le verre trempé. Mécanique [physics.med-ph]. Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, 1996. Français. ⟨tel-00529410⟩

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